Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.1

Administration Guide

Administrating Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Environments.

Edition 1

Jodi Biddle

Andrew Burden

Zac Dover

Steve Gordon

Tim Hildred

Dayle Parker

Cheryn Tan

Legal Notice

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Abstract

This book contains information and procedures relevant to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization administrators.
Preface
1. Document Conventions
2. Getting Help and Giving Feedback
1. Using this Guide
1.1. Administration Guide Prerequisites
1.2. Administration Guide Layout
1.3. Example Workflows
2. Basics
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Using the Administration Portal Graphical Interface
I. Administering the Resources
3. Data Centers
3.1. Introduction to Data Centers
3.2. The Storage Pool Manager (SPM)
3.3. SPM Priority
3.4. Using the Events Tab to Identify Problem Objects in Data Centers
3.5. Data Center Tasks
3.6. Data Centers and Storage Domains
3.7. Data Centers and Permissions
4. Clusters
4.1. Introduction to Clusters
4.2. Cluster Tasks
4.3. Clusters and Permissions
5. Logical Networks
5.1. Introduction to Logical Networks
5.2. Port Mirroring
5.3. Required Networks, Optional Networks, and Virtual Machine Networks
5.4. Logical Network Tasks
6. Hosts
6.1. Introduction to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hosts
6.2. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor Hosts
6.3. Red Hat Enterprise Linux Hosts
6.4. Host Tasks
6.5. Hosts and Networking
6.6. Host Resilience
6.7. Hosts and Permissions
7. Storage
7.1. Introduction to Storage in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization
7.2. Understanding Storage Domains
7.3. Storage Metadata Versions in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization
7.4. Preparing and Adding File-based Storage
7.5. Adding POSIX Compliant File System Storage
7.6. Adding Block-based Storage
7.7. Storage Tasks
7.8. Red Hat Storage Volumes
7.9. Storage and Permissions
8. Virtual Machines
8.1. Introduction to Virtual Machines
8.2. Supported Virtual Machine Operating Systems
8.3. Virtual Machine Performance Parameters
8.4. Creating Virtual Machines
8.5. Using Virtual Machines
8.6. Shutting Down or Pausing Virtual Machines
8.7. Managing Virtual Machines
8.8. Virtual Machines and Permissions
8.9. Backing Up and Restoring Virtual Machines with Snapshots
8.10. Importing and Exporting Virtual Machines
8.11. Migrating Virtual Machines Between Hosts
8.12. Improving Uptime with Virtual Machine High Availability
8.13. Other Virtual Machine Tasks
9. Templates
9.1. Introduction to Templates
9.2. Template Tasks
9.3. Sealing Templates in Preparation for Deployment
9.4. Templates and Permissions
10. Pools
10.1. Introduction to Virtual Machine Pools
10.2. Virtual Machine Pool Tasks
10.3. Pools and Permissions
11. Virtual Machine Disks
11.1. Understanding Virtual Machine Storage
11.2. Understanding Virtual Disks
11.3. Shareable Disks in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization
11.4. Creating Unassociated Virtual Machine Hard Disks
11.5. Explanation of Settings in the New Virtual Machine Disk and Edit Virtual Machine Disk Windows
11.6. Moving a Virtual Machine Hard Disk Between Data Domains
11.7. Virtual Disks and Permissions
II. Administering the Environment
12. Users and Roles
12.1. Introduction to Users
12.2. Directory Users
12.3. User Authorization
12.4. RHEVM User Properties and Roles
12.5. RHEVM User Tasks
12.6. User Role and Authorization Examples
13. Quotas
13.1. Introduction to Quota
13.2. Shared Quota and Individually-defined Quota
13.3. Quota Accounting
13.4. Enabling and Changing a Quota Mode in a Data Center
13.5. Creating a New Quota Policy
13.6. Explanation of Quota Threshold Settings
13.7. Assigning a Quota to an Object
13.8. Using Quota to Limit Resources by User
13.9. Editing Quotas
13.10. Removing Quotas
14. Event Notifications
14.1. Configuring Event Notifications
14.2. Parameters for event notifications in notifier.conf
14.3. Canceling Event Notifications
15. Updating the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Environment
15.1. Upgrades between Minor Releases
15.2. Upgrading to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.1
16. Reports, History Database Reports, and Dashboards
16.1. Reports
16.2. History Database Reports
16.3. Dashboards
A. Firewalls
A.1. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Firewall Requirements
A.2. Virtualization Host Firewall Requirements
A.3. Directory Server Firewall Requirements
A.4. Database Server Firewall Requirements
B. VDSM and Hooks
B.1. VDSM
B.2. VDSM Hooks
B.3. Extending VDSM with Hooks
B.4. Supported VDSM Events
B.5. The VDSM Hook Environment
B.6. The VDSM Hook Domain XML Object
B.7. Defining Virtual Machine Custom Properties
B.8. Setting Virtual Machine Custom Properties
B.9. Evaluating Virtual Machine Custom Properties in a VDSM Hook
B.10. Using the VDSM Hooking Module
B.11. VDSM Hook Execution
B.12. VDSM Hook Return Codes
B.13. VDSM Hook Examples
C. Utilities
C.1. Managing Domains with the Domain Management Tool
C.2. Editing the Configuration of the Red Hat Virtualization Manager with the Configuration Tool
C.3. Uploading Virtual Machine Images with the Image Uploader Tool
C.4. Editing USB Filters with the USB Filter Editor
C.5. Collecting Logs with the Log Collector Tool
C.6. Uploading ISO Files with the ISO Uploader Tool
C.7. Guest Drivers and Agents
D. Backups
D.1. Backing Up the Engine Database Using the backup.sh Script
D.2. Restoring the Engine Database Using the restore.sh Script
D.3. Restoring Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Configuration Files
D.4. Backing Up and Restoring Manager Configuration Files
E. Using Search, Bookmarks, and Tags to Find Your Way Around
E.1. Search
E.2. Bookmarks
E.3. Tags
F. Revision History

Preface

1. Document Conventions

This manual uses several conventions to highlight certain words and phrases and draw attention to specific pieces of information.
In PDF and paper editions, this manual uses typefaces drawn from the Liberation Fonts set. The Liberation Fonts set is also used in HTML editions if the set is installed on your system. If not, alternative but equivalent typefaces are displayed. Note: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and later include the Liberation Fonts set by default.

1.1. Typographic Conventions

Four typographic conventions are used to call attention to specific words and phrases. These conventions, and the circumstances they apply to, are as follows.
Mono-spaced Bold
Used to highlight system input, including shell commands, file names and paths. Also used to highlight keys and key combinations. For example:
To see the contents of the file my_next_bestselling_novel in your current working directory, enter the cat my_next_bestselling_novel command at the shell prompt and press Enter to execute the command.
The above includes a file name, a shell command and a key, all presented in mono-spaced bold and all distinguishable thanks to context.
Key combinations can be distinguished from an individual key by the plus sign that connects each part of a key combination. For example:
Press Enter to execute the command.
Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 to switch to a virtual terminal.
The first example highlights a particular key to press. The second example highlights a key combination: a set of three keys pressed simultaneously.
If source code is discussed, class names, methods, functions, variable names and returned values mentioned within a paragraph will be presented as above, in mono-spaced bold. For example:
File-related classes include filesystem for file systems, file for files, and dir for directories. Each class has its own associated set of permissions.
Proportional Bold
This denotes words or phrases encountered on a system, including application names; dialog box text; labeled buttons; check-box and radio button labels; menu titles and sub-menu titles. For example:
Choose SystemPreferencesMouse from the main menu bar to launch Mouse Preferences. In the Buttons tab, select the Left-handed mouse check box and click Close to switch the primary mouse button from the left to the right (making the mouse suitable for use in the left hand).
To insert a special character into a gedit file, choose ApplicationsAccessoriesCharacter Map from the main menu bar. Next, choose SearchFind… from the Character Map menu bar, type the name of the character in the Search field and click Next. The character you sought will be highlighted in the Character Table. Double-click this highlighted character to place it in the Text to copy field and then click the Copy button. Now switch back to your document and choose EditPaste from the gedit menu bar.
The above text includes application names; system-wide menu names and items; application-specific menu names; and buttons and text found within a GUI interface, all presented in proportional bold and all distinguishable by context.
Mono-spaced Bold Italic or Proportional Bold Italic
Whether mono-spaced bold or proportional bold, the addition of italics indicates replaceable or variable text. Italics denotes text you do not input literally or displayed text that changes depending on circumstance. For example:
To connect to a remote machine using ssh, type ssh username@domain.name at a shell prompt. If the remote machine is example.com and your username on that machine is john, type ssh john@example.com.
The mount -o remount file-system command remounts the named file system. For example, to remount the /home file system, the command is mount -o remount /home.
To see the version of a currently installed package, use the rpm -q package command. It will return a result as follows: package-version-release.
Note the words in bold italics above — username, domain.name, file-system, package, version and release. Each word is a placeholder, either for text you enter when issuing a command or for text displayed by the system.
Aside from standard usage for presenting the title of a work, italics denotes the first use of a new and important term. For example:
Publican is a DocBook publishing system.

1.2. Pull-quote Conventions

Terminal output and source code listings are set off visually from the surrounding text.
Output sent to a terminal is set in mono-spaced roman and presented thus:
books        Desktop   documentation  drafts  mss    photos   stuff  svn
books_tests  Desktop1  downloads      images  notes  scripts  svgs
Source-code listings are also set in mono-spaced roman but add syntax highlighting as follows:
static int kvm_vm_ioctl_deassign_device(struct kvm *kvm,
                 struct kvm_assigned_pci_dev *assigned_dev)
{
         int r = 0;
         struct kvm_assigned_dev_kernel *match;

         mutex_lock(&kvm->lock);

         match = kvm_find_assigned_dev(&kvm->arch.assigned_dev_head,
                                       assigned_dev->assigned_dev_id);
         if (!match) {
                 printk(KERN_INFO "%s: device hasn't been assigned before, "
                   "so cannot be deassigned\n", __func__);
                 r = -EINVAL;
                 goto out;
         }

         kvm_deassign_device(kvm, match);

         kvm_free_assigned_device(kvm, match);

out:
         mutex_unlock(&kvm->lock);
         return r;
}

1.3. Notes and Warnings

Finally, we use three visual styles to draw attention to information that might otherwise be overlooked.

Note

Notes are tips, shortcuts or alternative approaches to the task at hand. Ignoring a note should have no negative consequences, but you might miss out on a trick that makes your life easier.

Important

Important boxes detail things that are easily missed: configuration changes that only apply to the current session, or services that need restarting before an update will apply. Ignoring a box labeled 'Important' will not cause data loss but may cause irritation and frustration.

Warning

Warnings should not be ignored. Ignoring warnings will most likely cause data loss.

2. Getting Help and Giving Feedback

2.1. Do You Need Help?

If you experience difficulty with a procedure described in this documentation, visit the Red Hat Customer Portal at http://access.redhat.com. Through the customer portal, you can:
  • search or browse through a knowledgebase of technical support articles about Red Hat products.
  • submit a support case to Red Hat Global Support Services (GSS).
  • access other product documentation.
Red Hat also hosts a large number of electronic mailing lists for discussion of Red Hat software and technology. You can find a list of publicly available mailing lists at https://www.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo. Click on the name of any mailing list to subscribe to that list or to access the list archives.

2.2. We Need Feedback!

If you find a typographical error in this manual, or if you have thought of a way to make this manual better, we would love to hear from you! Please submit a report in Bugzilla: http://bugzilla.redhat.com/ against the product Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.
When submitting a bug report, be sure to mention the manual's identifier: Guides-Admin
If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation, try to be as specific as possible when describing it. If you have found an error, please include the section number and some of the surrounding text so we can find it easily.

Chapter 1. Using this Guide

1.1. Administration Guide Prerequisites

You need a functioning Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment to use this guide. You can use the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Installation Guide or the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Quick Start Guide to install your environment and complete the initial configuration tasks.
A basic Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment has:
  • at least one data center,
  • at least one cluster,
  • at least one host,
  • at least one data storage domain,
  • at least one logical network: the rhevm management network,
  • and at least one user: the internal admin user.
The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Administration Guide contains information about managing existing Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environments. If your environment is missing one of the listed elements, please find the topic in this guide or in the Installation Guide or Quick Start Guide that describes how to add what your environment is missing.

1.2. Administration Guide Layout

In the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Administration Guide it is assumed that administrators want to perform actions on objects or with objects. For example, you want to add a new logical network to a cluster. "Add a new logical network" is an action, and "cluster" is an object.
The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Administration Guide uses objects to group content. The objects are ordered according to their likely order of usage by administrators. The objects are:
  • Data Centers;
  • Clusters;
  • Networks;
  • Hosts;
  • Storage;
  • Virtual Machines, Templates, and Pools;
  • Users and Roles;
  • Quotas;
  • Monitoring, Reports, and Dashboards;
  • Firewalls;
  • VDSM and Hooks;
  • Utilities; and
  • Backups.
To use this guide, find the object you are interested in affecting, then find the action or task you want to perform.

1.3. Example Workflows

1.3.1. Administration Guide Example Workflows Overview

Example workflows can help you become comfortable with using the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Administration Guide. They are common tasks performed by administrators of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environments. Each workflow begins with a scenario, and then gives links to the tasks for each scenario in the order that they should be performed.

1.3.2. Administration Guide Example Workflow: New iSCSI Data Center

Your employer has purchased some new hypervisors and storage to add to your environment. All the hardware has been configured by your IT department. The storage is deployed as iSCSI storage. The hypervisors run Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The storage traffic is carried over a storage network separate from management traffic. Control over this hardware is delegated to one of your colleagues.

1.3.3. Administration Guide Example Workflow: Newly Virtualized Workload

You have recently virtualized an important workload. You need to maximize the uptime of the virtual machine it runs on. You clone the virtual machine to a template so that it is easy to re-provision if necessary. You hand control of the virtual machine and the cluster it runs on to another administrator.

1.3.4. Administration Guide Example Workflow: Template for Group Use

You have a group of users who want to provision virtual machines running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. You have to add an ISO storage domain and upload an ISO to it. You install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 on a virtual machine, and make a template out of it. You make the group template users.

Chapter 2. Basics

2.1. Introduction

2.1.1. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Architecture

A Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment consists of:
  • Virtual machine hosts using the Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM).
  • Agents and tools running on hosts including VDSM, QEMU, and libvirt. These tools provide local management for virtual machines, networks and storage.
  • The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager; a centralized management platform for the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment. It provides a graphical interface where you can view, provision and manage resources.
  • Storage domains to hold virtual resources like virtual machines, templates, ISOs.
  • A database to track the state of and changes to the environment.
  • Access to an external Directory Server to provide users and authentication.
  • Networking to link the environment together. This includes physical network links, and logical networks.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Platform Overview

Figure 2.1. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Platform Overview


2.1.2. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization System Components

The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment consists of one or more hosts (either Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3 or later hosts or Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor hosts) and at least one Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.
Hosts run virtual machines using KVM virtualization technology (Kernel-based Virtual Machine).
The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager runs on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 server and provides interfaces for controlling the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment. It manages virtual machine and storage provisioning, connection protocols, user sessions, virtual machine images, and high availability virtual machines.
The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager is accessed through the Administration Portal using a web browser.

2.1.3. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Resources

The components of the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment fall into two categories: physical resources, and logical resources. Physical resources are physical objects, such as host and storage servers. Logical resources are non-physical groupings and processes, such as logical networks and virtual machine templates.
  • Data Center - A data center is the highest level container for all physical and logical resources within a managed virtual environment. It is a collection of clusters of virtual machines, storage, and networks.
  • Clusters - A cluster is a set of physical hosts that are treated as a resource pool for virtual machines. Hosts in a cluster share the same network infrastructure and storage. They form a migration domain within which virtual machines can be moved from host to host.
  • Logical Networks - A logical network is a logical representation of a physical network. Logical networks group network traffic and communication between the Manager, hosts, storage, and virtual machines.
  • Hosts - A host is a physical server that runs one or more virtual machines. Hosts are grouped into clusters. Virtual machines can be migrated from one host to another within a cluster.
  • Storage Pool - The storage pool is a logical entity that contains a standalone image repository of a certain type, either iSCSI, Fiber Channel, NFS, or POSIX. Each storage pool can contain several domains, for storing virtual machine disk images, ISO images, and for the import and export of virtual machine images.
  • Virtual Machines - A virtual machine is a virtual desktop or virtual server containing an operating system and a set of applications. Multiple identical virtual machines can be created in a Pool. Virtual machines are created, managed, or deleted by power users and accessed by users.
  • Template - A template is a model virtual machine with pre-defined settings. A virtual machine that is based on a particular template acquires the settings of the template. Using templates is the quickest way of creating a large number of virtual machines in a single step.
  • Virtual Machine Pool - A virtual machine pool is a group of identical virtual machines that are available on demand by each group member. Virtual machine pools can be set up for different purposes. For example, one pool can be for the Marketing department, another for Research and Development, and so on.
  • Snapshot - A snapshot is a view of a virtual machine's operating system and all its applications at a point in time. It can be used to save the settings of a virtual machine before an upgrade or installing new applications. In case of problems, a snapshot can be used to restore the virtual machine to its original state.
  • User Types - Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization supports multiple levels of administrators and users with distinct levels of permissions. System administrators can manage objects of the physical infrastructure, such as data centers, hosts, and storage. Users access virtual machines available from a virtual machine pool or standalone virtual machines made accessible by an administrator.
  • Events and Monitors - Alerts, warnings, and other notices about activities help the administrator to monitor the performance and status of resources.
  • Reports - A range of reports either from the reports module based on JasperReports, or from the data warehouse. Preconfigured or ad hoc reports can be generated from the reports module. Users can also generate reports using any query tool that supports SQL from a data warehouse that collects monitoring data for hosts, virtual machines, and storage.

2.1.4. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization API Support Statement

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization exposes a number of interfaces for interacting with the components of the virtualization environment. These interfaces are in addition to the user interfaces provided by the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Administration, User, and Reports Portals. Many of these interfaces are fully supported. Some however are supported only for read access or only when your use of them has been explicitly requested by Red Hat Support.

Supported Interfaces for Read and Write Access

Direct interaction with these interfaces is supported and encouraged for both read and write access:
Representational State Transfer (REST) API
The REST API exposed by the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager is a fully supported interface for interacting with Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.
Software Development Kit (SDK)
The SDK provided by the rhevm-sdk package is a fully supported interface for interacting with Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.
Command Line Shell
The command line shell provided by the rhevm-cli package is a fully supported interface for interacting with the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.
VDSM Hooks
The creation and use of VDSM hooks to trigger modification of virtual machines based on custom properties specified in the Administration Portal is supported on Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtualization hosts. The use of VDSM Hooks on virtualization hosts running Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor is not currently supported.

Supported Interfaces for Read Access

Direct interaction with these interfaces is supported and encouraged only for read access. Use of these interfaces for write access is not supported unless explicitly requested by Red Hat Support:
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager History Database
Read access to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager history database using the database views specified in the Administration Guide is supported. Write access is not supported.
Libvirt on Virtualization Hosts
Read access to libvirt using the virsh -r command is a supported method of interacting with virtualization hosts. Write access is not supported.

Unsupported Interfaces

Direct interaction with these interfaces is not supported unless your use of them is explicitly requested by Red Hat Support:
The vdsClient Command
Use of the vdsClient command to interact with virtualization hosts is not supported unless explicitly requested by Red Hat Support.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor Console
Console access to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor outside of the provided text user interface for configuration is not supported unless explicitly requested by Red Hat Support.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Database
Direct access to and manipulation of the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager database is not supported unless explicitly requested by Red Hat Support.

Important

Red Hat Support will not debug user created scripts or hooks except where it can be demonstrated that there is an issue with the interface being used rather than the user created script itself. For more general information about Red Hat support policies see https://access.redhat.com/support/offerings/production/soc.html.

2.1.5. SPICE

The SPICE protocol facilitates graphical connections to virtual machines. The SPICE protocol allows:
  • video at more than 30 frames per second
  • bi-directional audio (for soft-phones/IP phones)
  • bi-directional video (for video telephony/video conferencing)
  • connection to multiple monitors with a single virtual machine
  • USB redirection from the client's USB port into the virtual machine

2.1.6. Administering and Maintaining the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Environment

The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment requires an administrator to keep it running. As an administrator, your tasks include:
  • Managing physical and virtual resources such as hosts and virtual machines. This includes upgrading and adding hosts, importing domains, converting virtual machines created on foreign hypervisors, and managing virtual machine pools.
  • Monitoring the overall system resources for potential problems such as extreme load on one of the hosts, insufficient memory or disk space, and taking any necessary actions (such as migrating virtual machines to other hosts to lessen the load or freeing resources by shutting down machines).
  • Responding to the new requirements of virtual machines (for example, upgrading the operating system or allocating more memory).
  • Managing customized object properties using tags.
  • Managing searches saved as public bookmarks.
  • Managing user setup and setting permission levels.
  • Troubleshooting for specific users or virtual machines for overall system functionality.
  • Generating general and specific reports.

2.2. Using the Administration Portal Graphical Interface

2.2.1. Graphical User Interface Elements

The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Administration Portal consists of contextual panes and menus and can be used in two modes, tree mode and flat mode. Tree mode allows you to browse the object hierarchy of a data center and is the recommended manner of operation. The elements of the GUI are shown in the diagram below.
User Interface Elements of the Administration Portal

Figure 2.2. User Interface Elements of the Administration Portal


User Interface Elements

  • Header
    The Header bar contains the name of the current logged in user and the Sign Out button. The About button shows version information. The Configure button allows you to configure user roles. The Guide button provides a shortcut to the book you are reading now.
  • Search Bar
    The Search bar allows you to build queries to find the resources that you need. Queries can be as simple as a list of all the hosts in the system, or much more complex. As you type each part of the search query, you are offered choices to assist you in building the search. The star icon can be used to save the search as a bookmark.
  • Resource Tabs
    All resources, such as hosts and clusters, can be managed using the appropriate tab. Additionally, the Events tabs allow you to view events for each resource.
    The Administration Portal provides the following tabs: Data Centers, Clusters, Hosts, Storage, Disks, Virtual Machines, Pools, Templates, Users, and Events, and a Dashboard tab if you have installed the Data Warehouse and Reporting services.
  • Results List
    Perform a task on an individual item, multiple items, or all the items in the results list, by selecting the item(s) and then clicking the relevant action button. Information on a selected item is displayed in the details pane.
  • Details Pane
    The Details pane shows detailed information about a selected item in the results list. If multiple items are selected, the details pane displays information on the first selected item only.
  • Tree/Bookmarks/Tags Pane
    The Tree pane displays a navigable hierarchy of the resources in the virtualized environment.
    Bookmarks are used to save frequently used or complicated searches for repeated use. Bookmarks can be added, edited, or removed.
    Tags are applied to groups of resources and are used to search for all resources associated with that tag.
  • Alerts/Events Pane
    The Alerts tab lists all high severity events such as errors or warnings. The Events tab shows an audit of events for all resources. The Tasks tab lists the current running tasks. You can view this panel by clicking the maximize/ minimize button.

Important

The minimum supported resolution viewing the Administration Portal in a web browser is 1024x768. The Administration Portal will not render correctly when viewed at a lower resolution.

2.2.2. Tree Mode and Flat Mode

The Administration Portal provides two different modes for managing your resources: tree mode and flat mode. Tree mode displays resources in a hierarchical view per data center, from the highest level of the data center down to the individual virtual machine. Working in tree mode is highly recommended for most operations.
Tree Mode

Figure 2.3. Tree Mode


Flat mode allows you to search across data centers, or storage domains. It does not limit you to viewing the resources of a single hierarchy. For example, you may need to find all virtual machines that are using more than 80% CPU across clusters and data centers, or locate all hosts that have the highest utilization. Flat mode makes this possible. In addition, certain objects, such as Pools and Users are not in the data center hierarchy and can be accessed only in flat mode.
To access flat mode, click on the System item in the Tree pane on the left side of the screen. You are in flat mode if the Pools and Users resource tabs appear.
Flat Mode

Figure 2.4. Flat Mode


2.2.3. Using the Guide Me Facility

When setting up resources such as data centers and clusters, a number of tasks must be completed in sequence. The context-sensitive Guide Me window prompts for actions that are appropriate to the resource being configured. The Guide Me window can be accessed at any time by clicking the Guide Me button on the resource toolbar.
New Data Center Guide Me Window

Figure 2.5. New Data Center Guide Me Window


2.2.4. Performing Searches in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization

The Administration Portal enables the management of thousands of resources, such as virtual machines, hosts, users, and more. To perform a search, enter the search query (free-text or syntax-based) in the search bar. Search queries can be saved as bookmarks for future reuse, so you do not have to reenter a search query each time the specific search results are needed.

2.2.5. Saving a Query String as a Bookmark

Summary
A bookmark can be used to remember a search query, and shared with other users.

Procedure 2.1. Saving a Query String as a Bookmark

  1. Enter the desired search query in the search bar and perform the search.
  2. Click the star-shaped Bookmark button to the right of the search bar to open the New Bookmark window.
    Bookmark Icon

    Figure 2.6. Bookmark Icon


  3. Enter the Name of the bookmark.
  4. Edit the Search string field (if applicable).
  5. Click OK to save the query as a bookmark and close the window.
  6. The search query is saved and displays in the Bookmarks pane.
Result
You have saved a search query as a bookmark for future reuse. Use the Bookmark pane to find and select the bookmark.

Part I. Administering the Resources

Table of Contents

3. Data Centers
3.1. Introduction to Data Centers
3.2. The Storage Pool Manager (SPM)
3.3. SPM Priority
3.4. Using the Events Tab to Identify Problem Objects in Data Centers
3.5. Data Center Tasks
3.6. Data Centers and Storage Domains
3.7. Data Centers and Permissions
4. Clusters
4.1. Introduction to Clusters
4.2. Cluster Tasks
4.3. Clusters and Permissions
5. Logical Networks
5.1. Introduction to Logical Networks
5.2. Port Mirroring
5.3. Required Networks, Optional Networks, and Virtual Machine Networks
5.4. Logical Network Tasks
6. Hosts
6.1. Introduction to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hosts
6.2. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor Hosts
6.3. Red Hat Enterprise Linux Hosts
6.4. Host Tasks
6.5. Hosts and Networking
6.6. Host Resilience
6.7. Hosts and Permissions
7. Storage
7.1. Introduction to Storage in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization
7.2. Understanding Storage Domains
7.3. Storage Metadata Versions in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization
7.4. Preparing and Adding File-based Storage
7.5. Adding POSIX Compliant File System Storage
7.6. Adding Block-based Storage
7.7. Storage Tasks
7.8. Red Hat Storage Volumes
7.9. Storage and Permissions
8. Virtual Machines
8.1. Introduction to Virtual Machines
8.2. Supported Virtual Machine Operating Systems
8.3. Virtual Machine Performance Parameters
8.4. Creating Virtual Machines
8.5. Using Virtual Machines
8.6. Shutting Down or Pausing Virtual Machines
8.7. Managing Virtual Machines
8.8. Virtual Machines and Permissions
8.9. Backing Up and Restoring Virtual Machines with Snapshots
8.10. Importing and Exporting Virtual Machines
8.11. Migrating Virtual Machines Between Hosts
8.12. Improving Uptime with Virtual Machine High Availability
8.13. Other Virtual Machine Tasks
9. Templates
9.1. Introduction to Templates
9.2. Template Tasks
9.3. Sealing Templates in Preparation for Deployment
9.4. Templates and Permissions
10. Pools
10.1. Introduction to Virtual Machine Pools
10.2. Virtual Machine Pool Tasks
10.3. Pools and Permissions
11. Virtual Machine Disks
11.1. Understanding Virtual Machine Storage
11.2. Understanding Virtual Disks
11.3. Shareable Disks in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization
11.4. Creating Unassociated Virtual Machine Hard Disks
11.5. Explanation of Settings in the New Virtual Machine Disk and Edit Virtual Machine Disk Windows
11.6. Moving a Virtual Machine Hard Disk Between Data Domains
11.7. Virtual Disks and Permissions

Chapter 3. Data Centers

3.1. Introduction to Data Centers

A data center is a logical entity that defines the set of resources used in a specific environment. A data center is considered a container resource, in that it is comprised of logical resources, in the form of clusters and hosts; network resources, in the form of logical networks and physical NICs; and storage resources, in the form of storage domains.
A data center can contain multiple clusters, which can contain multiple hosts; it can have multiple storage domains associated to it; and it can support multiple virtual machines on each of its hosts. A Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment can contain multiple data centers; the data center infrastructure allows you to keep these centers separate.
All data centers are managed from the single Administration Portal.
Data Centers

Figure 3.1. Data Centers


Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization creates a default data center during installation. It is recommended that you do not remove the default data center; instead, set up new appropriately named data centers.
Data Center Objects

Figure 3.2. Data Center Objects


3.2. The Storage Pool Manager (SPM)

The Storage Pool Manager (SPM) is a role given to one of the hosts in the data center enabling it to manage the storage domains of the data center. The SPM entity can be run on any host in the data center; the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager grants the role to one of the hosts. The SPM does not preclude the host from its standard operation; a host running as SPM can still host virtual resources.
The SPM entity controls access to storage by coordinating the metadata across the storage domains. This includes creating, deleting, and manipulating virtual disks (images), snapshots, and templates, and allocating storage for sparse block devices (on SAN). This is an exclusive responsibility: only one host can be the SPM in the data center at one time to ensure metadata integrity.
The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager ensures that the SPM is always available. The Manager moves the SPM role to a different host if the SPM host encounters problems accessing the storage. When the SPM starts, it ensures that it is the only host granted the role; therefore it will acquire a storage-centric lease. This process can take some time.

3.3. SPM Priority

The SPM role uses some of a host's available resources. The SPM priority setting of a host alters the likelihood of the host being assigned the SPM role: a host with high SPM priority will be assigned the SPM role before a host with low SPM priority. Critical virtual machines on hosts with low SPM priority will not have to contend with SPM operations for host resources.
You can change a host's SPM priority by editing the host.

3.4. Using the Events Tab to Identify Problem Objects in Data Centers

The Events tab for a data center displays all events associated with that data center; events include audits, warnings, and errors. The information displayed in the results list will enable you to identify problem objects in your Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment.
The Events results list has two views: Basic and Advanced. Basic view displays the event icon, the time of the event, and the description of the events. Advanced view displays these also and includes, where applicable, the event ID; the associated user, host, virtual machine, template, data center, storage, and cluster; the Gluster volume, and the correlation ID.
The Events Tab

Figure 3.3. The Events Tab


3.5. Data Center Tasks

3.5.1. Creating a New Data Center

Summary
This procedure creates a data center in your virtualization environment. The data center requires a functioning cluster, host, and storage domain to operate.

Note

The storage Type can be edited until the first storage domain is added to the data center. Once a storage domain has been added, the storage Type cannot be changed.
If you set the Compatibility Version as 3.1, it cannot be changed to 3.0 at a later time; version regression is not allowed.

Procedure 3.1. Creating a New Data Center

  1. Select the Data Centers resource tab to list all data centers in the results list.
  2. Click New to open the New Data Center window.
  3. Enter the Name and Description of the data center.
  4. Select the storage Type, Compatibility Version, and Quota Mode of the data center from the drop-down menus.
  5. Click OK to create the data center and open the New Data Center - Guide Me window.
  6. The Guide Me window lists the entities that need to be configured for the data center. Configure these entities or postpone configuration by clicking the Configure Later button; configuration can be resumed by selecting the data center and clicking the Guide Me button.
Result
The new data center is added to the virtualization environment. It will remain Uninitialized until a cluster, host, and storage domain is configured for it; use Guide Me to configure these entities.

3.5.2. Explanation of Settings in the New Data Center and Edit Data Center Windows

The New Data Center Window

Figure 3.4. The New Data Center Window


The table below describes the settings of a data center as displayed in the New Data Center and Edit Data Center windows. Invalid entries are outlined in orange when you click OK, prohibiting the changes being accepted. In addition, field prompts indicate the expected values or range of values.

Table 3.1. Data Center Properties

Field
Description/Action
Name
The name of the data center. This text field has a 40-character limit and must be a unique name with any combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, hyphens, and underscores.
Description
The description of the data center. This field is recommended but not mandatory.
Type
The storage type. Choose one of
  • NFS
  • iSCSI
  • Fibre Channel
  • Local on Host
  • POSIX compliant FS
The type of data domain dictates the type of the data center and cannot be changed after creation without significant disruption. All storage in a data center must be of one type only. For example, if iSCSI is selected as the type, only iSCSI data domains can be attached to the data center.
Compatibility Version
The version of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization. Choose one of:
  • 3.0
  • 3.1
After upgrading the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager, the hosts, clusters and data centers may still be in the earlier version. Ensure that you have upgraded all the hosts, then the clusters, before you upgrade the Compatibility Level of the data center.
Quota Mode
Quota is a resource limitation tool provided with Red Hat Enterprise Virtualizaton. Choose one of:
  • Disabled - Select if you do not want to implement Quota
  • Audit - Select if you want to edit the Quota settings
  • Enforced - Select to implement Quota

3.5.3. Editing a Resource

Summary
Edit the properties of a resource. The Edit window is identical to the New window, except that some fields are disabled.

Procedure 3.2. Editing a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click Edit to open the Edit window.
  3. Change the necessary properties and click OK.
Result
The new properties are saved to the resource. The Edit window will not close if a property field is invalid.

3.5.4. Creating a New Logical Network in a Data Center or Cluster

Summary
Create a logical network and define its use in the data center, or clusters in a data center.

Procedure 3.3. Defining Logical Networks in a Cluster

  1. Use the Data Centers or Clusters resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Logical Networks tab of the details pane to list the existing logical networks.
  3. Click New in the Data Centers details pane to open the New Logical Network window.
    Click Add Network in the Clusters details pane to open the New Logical Network window.
    New Logical Network

    Figure 3.5. New Logical Network


  4. Enter the Name and Description of the logical network.
  5. Select the check boxes to enable a VM Network, Enable VLAN tagging, and Override MTU.
  6. Select the cluster(s) you want to assign the network to. Note that the network is added as required Network to the selected clusters.
  7. Click OK to create the logical network.
Result
You have defined this logical network as a resource required by a cluster or clusters in the data center. You can now add this resource to the hosts in the cluster.

3.5.5. Re-Initializing a Data Center: Recovery Procedure

Summary
This recovery procedure replaces the master data domain of your data center with a new master data domain; necessary in the event of data corruption of your master data domain. Re-initializing a data center allows you to restore all other resources associated with the data center, including clusters, hosts, and non-problematic storage domains.
You can import any backup or exported virtual machines or templates into your new master data domain.

Procedure 3.4. Re-Initializing a Data Center

  1. Click the Data Centers resource tab and select the data center to re-initialize.
  2. Ensure that any storage domains attached to the data center are in maintenance mode.
  3. Right-click the data center and select Re-Initialize Data Center from the drop-down menu to open the Data Center Re-Initialize window.
  4. The Data Center Re-Initialize window lists all available (detached; in maintenance mode) storage domains. Click the radio button for the storage domain you are adding to the data center.
  5. Select the Approve operation check box.
  6. Click OK to close the window and re-initialize the data center.
Result
The storage domain is attached to the data center as the master data domain and activated. You can now import any backup or exported virtual machines or templates into your new master data domain.

3.5.6. Removing a Data Center

Summary
An active host is required to remove a data center. Removing a data center will not remove the associated resources.

Procedure 3.5. Removing a Data Center

  1. Ensure the storage domains attached to the data center is in maintenance mode.
  2. Click the Data Centers resource tab and select the data center to remove.
  3. Click Remove to open the Remove Data Center(s) confirmation window.
  4. Click OK.
Result
The data center has been removed.

3.5.7. Force Removing a Data Center

Summary
A data center becomes Non Responsive if the attached storage domain is corrupt or if the host becomes Non Responsive. You cannot Remove the data center under either circumstance.
Force Remove does not require an active host. It also permanently removes the attached storage domain.
It may be necessary to Destroy a corrupted storage domain before you can Force Remove the data center.

Procedure 3.6. Force Removing a Data Center

  1. Click the Data Centers resource tab and select the data center to remove.
  2. Click Force Remove to open the Force Remove Data Center confirmation window.
  3. Select the Approve operation check box.
  4. Click OK
Result
The data center and attached storage domain are permanently removed from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment.

3.6. Data Centers and Storage Domains

3.6.1. Attaching an Existing Data Domain to a Data Center

Summary
Data domains that are Unattached can be attached to a data center. The data domain must be of the same Storage Type as the data center.

Procedure 3.7. Attaching an Existing Data Domain to a Data Center

  1. Click the Data Centers resource tab and select the appropriate data center.
  2. Select the Storage tab in the details pane to list the storage domains already attached to the data center.
    Data Center Storage Tab

    Figure 3.6. Data Center Storage Tab


  3. Click Attach Data to open the Attach Storage window.
  4. Select the check box for the data domain to attach to the data center. You can select multiple check boxes to attach multiple data domains.
  5. Click OK.
Result
The data domain is attached to the data center and can be activated.

3.6.2. Attaching an Existing ISO domain to a Data Center

Summary
An ISO domain that is Unattached can be attached to a data center. The ISO domain must be of the same Storage Type as the data center.
Only one ISO domain can be attached to a data center.

Procedure 3.8. Attaching an Existing ISO Domain to a Data Center

  1. Click the Data Centers resource tab and select the appropriate data center.
  2. Select the Storage tab in the details pane to list the storage domains already attached to the data center.
    Attaching an ISO domain

    Figure 3.7. Attaching an ISO domain


  3. Click Attach ISO to open the Attach ISO Library window.
  4. Click the radio button for the appropriate ISO domain.
  5. Click OK.
Result
The ISO domain is attached to the data center and can be activated.

3.6.3. Attaching an Existing Export Domain to a Data Center

Summary
An export domain that is Unattached can be attached to a data center. The export domain must be of the same Storage Type as the data center.
Only one export domain can be attached to a data center.

Procedure 3.9. Attaching an Existing Export Domain to a Data Center

  1. Click the Data Centers resource tab and select the appropriate data center.
  2. Select the Storage tab in the details pane to list the storage domains already attached to the data center.
  3. Click Attach Export to open the Attach Export Domain window.
    Attach Export Domain Window

    Figure 3.8. Attach Export Domain Window


  4. Click the radio button for the appropriate Export domain.
  5. Click OK.
Result
The Export domain is attached to the data center and can be activated.

3.6.4. Detaching a Storage Domain from a Data Center

Summary
Detaching a storage domain from a data center will stop the data center from associating with that storage domain. The storage domain is not removed from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment; it can be attached to another data center.
Data, such as virtual machines and templates, remains attached to the storage domain.

Note

The master storage, if it is the last available storage domain, cannot be removed.

Procedure 3.10. Detaching a Storage Domain from a Data Center

  1. Click the Data Centers resource tab and select the appropriate data center.
  2. Select the Storage tab in the details pane to list the storage domains attached to the data center.
  3. Select the storage domain to detach. If the storage domain is Active, click Maintenance to move the domain into maintenance mode.
  4. Click Detach to open the Detach Storage confirmation window.
  5. Click OK.
Result
You have detached the storage domain from the data center. It can take up to several minutes for the storage domain to disappear from the details pane.

3.6.5. Activating a Storage Domain from Maintenance Mode

Summary
Storage domains in maintenance mode must be activated to be used.

Procedure 3.11. Activating a Data Domain from Maintenance Mode

  1. Click the Data Centers resource tab and select the appropriate data center.
  2. Select the Storage tab in the details pane to list the storage domains attached to the data center.
  3. Select the appropriate storage domain and click Activate.
Result
The storage domain is activated and can be used in the data center.

3.7. Data Centers and Permissions

3.7.1. Managing System Permissions for a Data Center

The system administrator, as the SuperUser, manages all aspects of the Administration Portal. More specific administrative roles can be assigned to other users. These restricted administrator roles are useful for empowering a user with certain administrative privileges that limit them to a specific resource: a DataCenterAdmin role has administrator privileges only for the assigned data center, a ClusterAdmin has administrator privileges only for the assigned cluster, a StorageAdmin has administrator privileges only for the assigned storage domain, and so forth.
A data center administrator is a system administration role for a specific data center only. This is useful in virtualized environments with multiple data center, where each data center requires a system administrator. The DataCenterAdmin role is a hierarchical model: a user assigned the data center administrator role for a data center can manage all objects in the data center. Use the Configure button in the header bar to assign a data center administrator for all data centers in the environment.
The data center administrator role permits the following actions:
  • Create and remove clusters associated with the data center;
  • Add and remove hosts, virtual machines, and pools associated with the data center; and
  • Edit user permissions for virtual machines associated with the data center.

Note

You can only assign roles and permissions to existing users.
You can change the system administrator of a data center by removing the existing system administrator and adding the new system administrator.

3.7.2. Data Center Administrator Roles Explained

Data Center Permission Roles
The table below describes the administrator roles and privileges applicable to data center administration.

Table 3.2. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization System Administrator Roles

Role Privileges Notes
DataCenterAdmin Data Center Administrator Can use, create, delete, manage all physical and virtual resources within a specific data center, including clusters, hosts, templates and virtual machines.
NetworkAdmin Network Administrator Can configure and manage the network of a particular data center. A network administrator of data center inherits network permissions for virtual machines within the data center as well.

3.7.3. Assigning an Administrator or User Role to a Resource

Summary
Assign administrator or user roles to resources to allow users to access or manage that resource.

Procedure 3.12. Assigning a Role to a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Permissions tab of the details pane to list the assigned users, the user's role, and the inherited permissions for the selected resource.
  3. Click Add to open the Add Permission to User window.
  4. Enter the name or user name of an existing user into the Search text box and click Go. Select a user from the resulting list of possible matches.
  5. Select a role from the Role to Assign: drop-down menu.
  6. Click OK to assign the role and close the window.
Result
You have assigned a role to a user; the user now has the inherited permissions of that role enabled for that resource.

3.7.4. Removing an Administrator or User Role from a Resource

Summary
Remove an administrator or user role from a resource; the user loses the inherited permissions associated with the role for that resource.

Procedure 3.13. Removing a Role from a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Permissions tab of the details pane to list the assigned users, the user's role, and the inherited permissions for the selected resource.
  3. Select the user to remove from the resource.
  4. Click Remove. The Remove Permission window opens to confirm permissions removal.
  5. Click OK to remove the user role.
Result
You have removed the user's role, and the associated permissions, from the resource.

Chapter 4. Clusters

4.1. Introduction to Clusters

A cluster is a logical grouping of hosts that share the same storage domains and have the same type of CPU, either Intel or AMD. If the hosts have different generations of CPU models, they only use the features present in all models.
Every cluster in the system must belong to a data center, and every host in the system must belong to a cluster. Virtual machines are dynamically allocated to any host in a cluster and can be migrated between them, according to policies defined on the Clusters tab and in the Configuration tool during runtime. The cluster is the highest level at which power and load-sharing policies can be defined.
The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization platform contains a default cluster in the default data center at installation.
Cluster

Figure 4.1. Cluster


4.2. Cluster Tasks

4.2.1. Creating a New Cluster

Summary
A data center can contain multiple clusters and a cluster can hold multiple hosts. All hosts in a cluster must run the same CPU type (Intel or AMD). It is recommended that you create your hosts before you create your cluster to ensure CPU type optimization; however, you can configure the hosts at a later time using the Guide Me button.

Important

The default rhevm network cannot be modified once a Cluster has been attached to a data center. Perform all configuration for the rhevm network, such as enabling VLAN tagging, before a Cluster is attached and while the data center remains in the Uninitialized state.

Procedure 4.1. Creating a New Cluster

  1. Select the Clusters resource tab to list all clusters in the results list.
  2. Click New to open the New Cluster window.
  3. Select the Data Center the cluster will belong to from the drop-down menu.
  4. Enter the Name and Description of the cluster.
  5. Select the CPU Name and Compatibility Version from the drop-down menus. It is important to match the CPU processor family with the minimum CPU processor type of the hosts you intend to attach to the cluster, otherwise the host will be non-operational.
  6. Click the Memory Optimization tab to select the memory page sharing threshold for the cluster
  7. Click the Resilience Policy tab to select the virtual machine migration policy.
  8. Click OK to create the cluster and open the New Cluster - Guide Me window.
  9. The Guide Me window lists the entities that need to be configured for the cluster. Configure these entities or postpone configuration by clicking the Configure Later button; configuration can be resumed by selecting the cluster and clicking the Guide Me button.
Result
The new cluster is added to the virtualization environment.

4.2.2. Explanation of Settings and Controls in the New Cluster and Edit Cluster Windows

4.2.2.1. General Cluster Settings Explained

New Cluster window

Figure 4.2. New Cluster window


The table below describes the settings for the General tab in the New Cluster and Edit Cluster windows. Invalid entries are outlined in orange when you click OK, prohibiting the changes being accepted. In addition, field prompts indicate the expected values or range of values.

Table 4.1. General Cluster Settings

Field
Description/Action
Data Center
The data center that will contain the cluster.
Name
The name of the cluster. This text field has a 40-character limit and must be a unique name with any combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, hyphens, and underscores.
Description
The description of the cluster. This field is recommended but not mandatory.
CPU Name
The CPU type of the cluster. Choose one of:
  • Intel Conroe Family
  • Intel Penryn Family
  • Intel Nehalem Family
  • Intel Westmere Family
  • Intel SandyBridge Family (Only available in 3.1)
  • AMD Opteron G1
  • AMD Opteron G2
  • AMD Opteron G3
  • AMD Opteron G4 (Only available in 3.1)
All hosts in a cluster must run the same CPU type (Intel or AMD); this cannot be changed after creation without significant disruption. The CPU type should be set for the least powerful host. For example: an Intel SandyBridge host can attach to an Intel Penryn cluster; an Intel Conroe host cannot. Hosts with different CPU models will only use features present in all models.
Compatibility Version
The version of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization. Choose one of:
  • 3.0
  • 3.1
You will not be allowed to select 3.0 if the data center has been set as 3.1.

4.2.2.2. Memory Optimization Settings Explained

Memory page sharing allows virtual machines to use up to 200% of their allocated memory by utilizing unused memory in other virtual machines. This process is based on the assumption that the virtual machines in your Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment will not all be running at full capacity at the same time, allowing unused memory to be temporarily allocated to a particular virtual machine.
Memory Optimization Settings

Figure 4.3. Memory Optimization Settings


The table below describes the settings for the Memory Optimization tab in the New Cluster and Edit Cluster windows.

Table 4.2. Memory Optimization Settings

Field
Description/Action
None
Disables memory page sharing.
Optimized for Server Load
Sets the memory page sharing threshold to 150% of the system memory on each host.
Optimized for Desktop Load
Sets the memory page sharing threshold to 200% of the system memory on each host.

4.2.2.3. Resilience Policy Settings Explained

The resilience policy sets the virtual machine migration policy in the event of host failure. Virtual machines running on a host that unexpectedly shuts down or is put into maintenance mode are migrated to other hosts in the cluster; this migration is dependent upon your cluster policy.

Note

Virtual machine migration is a network-intensive operation. For instance, on a setup where a host is running ten or more virtual machines, migrating all of them can be a long and resource-consuming process. Therefore, select the policy action to best suit your setup. If you prefer a conservative approach, disable all migration of virtual machines. Alternatively, if you have many virtual machines, but only several which are running critical workloads, select the option to migrate only highly available virtual machines.
Resilience Policy Settings

Figure 4.4. Resilience Policy Settings


The table below describes the settings for the Resilience Policy tab in the New Cluster and Edit Cluster windows.

Table 4.3. Resilience Policy Settings

Field
Description/Action
Migrate Virtual Machines
Migrates all virtual machines in order of their defined priority.
Migrate only Highly Available Virtual Machines
Migrates only highly available virtual machines to prevent overloading other hosts.
Do Not Migrate Virtual Machines
Prevents virtual machines from being migrated.

4.2.3. Editing a Resource

Summary
Edit the properties of a resource. The Edit window is identical to the New window, except that some fields are disabled.

Procedure 4.2. Editing a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click Edit to open the Edit window.
  3. Change the necessary properties and click OK.
Result
The new properties are saved to the resource. The Edit window will not close if a property field is invalid.

4.2.4. Setting Load and Power Management Policies for Hosts in a Cluster

Summary
Cluster policies allow you to specify the usage and distribution of virtual machines between available hosts. Define the cluster policy to enable automatic load balancing across the hosts in a cluster.
A host that exceeds the Maximum Service Level will share its CPU processor load, additional virtual machines, to other hosts.
A host that does not exceed the Minimum Service Level will migrate all of its virtual machines to other hosts and power down until such time as it is required again.

Procedure 4.3. Setting Load and Power Management Policies for Hosts

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the cluster in the results list.
  2. Click the Edit Policy button, found in the General tab of the details pane, to open the Edit Policy window.
    Edit Cluster Policy

    Figure 4.5. Edit Cluster Policy


  3. Select one of the following policies:
    • None
    • Even Distribution - use the blue slider to specify the Maximum Service Level for a host.
    • Power Saving - use the green slider to specify the Minimum Service Level for a host. Use the blue slider to specify the Maximum Service Level for a host.
  4. Specify the defined time interval (in minutes) in the text field.
  5. Click OK.
  6. Result
    You have updated the cluster policy for the cluster.

4.2.5. Explanation of Settings and Controls in the Edit Cluster Policy Window

Cluster policies allow you to specify the usage and distribution of virtual machines between available hosts. Define the cluster policy to enable automatic load balancing across the hosts in a cluster.
Power Management Policy Settings

Figure 4.6. Power Management Policy Settings


The table below describes the settings for the Edit Policy window.

Table 4.4. Cluster General Tab Properties

Field/Tab
Description/Action
None
Set the policy value to None to have no load or power sharing between hosts. This is the default mode.
Even Distribution
Distributes the CPU processing load evenly across all hosts in the cluster. Additional virtual machines attached to a host will not start if that host has reached the defined Maximum Service Level.
Power Saving
Distributes the CPU processing load across a subset of available hosts to reduce power consumption on under-utilized hosts. Hosts with a CPU load below the minimum service level past the defined time interval will migrate all virtual machines to other hosts so that it can be powered down. Additional virtual machines attached to a host will not start if that host has reached the defined maximum service level.
Maximum Service Level
Set by the blue slider. If the host runs at maximum service level for the defined time interval, the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager will migrate virtual machines to other hosts in the cluster until the host's CPU load is below the maximum service threshold.
Minimum Service Level
Set by the green slider. If the host runs below minimum service level for the defined time interval, the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager will migrate virtual machines to other hosts in the cluster and power down the host.
Defined Time Interval
Sets the time (in minutes) that a host can run a CPU load outside of the defined service levels before the cluster policy takes action. The defined time interval protects against temporary spikes in CPU load activating cluster policies and instigating unnecessary virtual machine migration. Maximum two characters.

4.2.6. Creating a New Logical Network in a Data Center or Cluster

Summary
Create a logical network and define its use in the data center, or clusters in a data center.

Procedure 4.4. Defining Logical Networks in a Cluster

  1. Use the Data Centers or Clusters resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Logical Networks tab of the details pane to list the existing logical networks.
  3. Click New in the Data Centers details pane to open the New Logical Network window.
    Click Add Network in the Clusters details pane to open the New Logical Network window.
    New Logical Network

    Figure 4.7. New Logical Network


  4. Enter the Name and Description of the logical network.
  5. Select the check boxes to enable a VM Network, Enable VLAN tagging, and Override MTU.
  6. Select the cluster(s) you want to assign the network to. Note that the network is added as required Network to the selected clusters.
  7. Click OK to create the logical network.
Result
You have defined this logical network as a resource required by a cluster or clusters in the data center. You can now add this resource to the hosts in the cluster.

4.2.7. Removing a Cluster

Summary
Move all hosts out of a cluster before removing it.

Note

You cannot remove the Default cluster, as it holds the Blank template. You can however rename the Default cluster and add it to a new data center.

Procedure 4.5. Removing a Cluster

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the cluster in the results list.
  2. Ensure there are no hosts in the cluster.
  3. Click Remove to open the Remove Cluster(s) confirmation window.
  4. Click OK
Result
The cluster is removed.

4.2.8. Designate a Specific Traffic Type for a Logical Network with the Assign/UnAssign Window

Summary
Specify the traffic type for the logical network to optimize the network traffic flow.

Procedure 4.6. Assigning or UnAssigning a Logical Network to a Cluster

  1. Use the Clusters resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the cluster in the results list.
  2. Select the Logical Networks tab in the details pane to list the logical networks assigned to the cluster.
  3. Click Assign/UnAssign Networks to open the Assign/UnAssign Networks window.
    Assign/UnAssign Networks

    Figure 4.8. Assign/UnAssign Networks


  4. Select appropriate check boxes.
  5. Click OK to save the changes and close the window.
Result
You have optimized the network traffic flow for the logical network.

4.2.9. Explanation of Settings in the Assign/UnAssign Window

The table below describes the settings for the Assigning/UnAssigning window.

Table 4.5. Assign/UnAssign Networks Settings

Field
Description/Action
Assign
Assigns the logical network to all hosts in the cluster.
Required
All hosts in the cluster require the logical network to be attached to an active NIC for the logical network to be operational.
VM Network
The logical network carries the virtual machine network traffic.
Display Network
The logical network carries the virtual machine SPICE and virtual network controller traffic.

4.3. Clusters and Permissions

4.3.1. Managing System Permissions for a Cluster

The system administrator, as the SuperUser, manages all aspects of the Administration Portal. More specific administrative roles can be assigned to other users. These restricted administrator roles are useful for empowering a user with certain administrative privileges that limit them to a specific resource: a DataCenterAdmin role has administrator privileges only for the assigned data center, a ClusterAdmin has administrator privileges only for the assigned cluster, and so forth.
A cluster administrator is a system administration role for a specific data center only. This is useful in data centers with multiple clusters, where each cluster requires a system administrator. The ClusterAdmin role is a hierarchical model: a user assigned the cluster administrator role for a cluster can manage all objects in the cluster. Use the Configure button in the header bar to assign a cluster administrator for all clusters in the environment.
The cluster administrator role permits the following actions:
  • Create and remove associated clusters;
  • Add and remove hosts, virtual machines, and pools associated with the cluster; and
  • Edit user permissions for virtual machines associated with the cluster.

Note

You can only assign roles and permissions to existing users.
You can also change the system administrator of a cluster by removing the existing system administrator and adding the new system administrator.

4.3.2. Cluster Administrator Roles Explained

Cluster Permission Roles
The table below describes the administrator roles and privileges applicable to cluster administration.

Table 4.6. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization System Administrator Roles

Role Privileges Notes
ClusterAdmin Cluster Administrator Can use, create, delete, manage all physical and virtual resources in a specific cluster, including hosts, templates and virtual machines.
NetworkAdmin Network Administrator Can configure and manage the network of a particular cluster. A network administrator of cluster inherits network permissions for virtual machines within the cluster as well.

4.3.3. Assigning an Administrator or User Role to a Resource

Summary
Assign administrator or user roles to resources to allow users to access or manage that resource.

Procedure 4.7. Assigning a Role to a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Permissions tab of the details pane to list the assigned users, the user's role, and the inherited permissions for the selected resource.
  3. Click Add to open the Add Permission to User window.
  4. Enter the name or user name of an existing user into the Search text box and click Go. Select a user from the resulting list of possible matches.
  5. Select a role from the Role to Assign: drop-down menu.
  6. Click OK to assign the role and close the window.
Result
You have assigned a role to a user; the user now has the inherited permissions of that role enabled for that resource.

4.3.4. Removing an Administrator or User Role from a Resource

Summary
Remove an administrator or user role from a resource; the user loses the inherited permissions associated with the role for that resource.

Procedure 4.8. Removing a Role from a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Permissions tab of the details pane to list the assigned users, the user's role, and the inherited permissions for the selected resource.
  3. Select the user to remove from the resource.
  4. Click Remove. The Remove Permission window opens to confirm permissions removal.
  5. Click OK to remove the user role.
Result
You have removed the user's role, and the associated permissions, from the resource.

Chapter 5. Logical Networks

5.1. Introduction to Logical Networks

A logical network is a named set of global network connectivity properties in your data center. When a logical network added to a host, it may be further configured with host-specific network parameters. Logical networks optimize network flow by grouping network traffic by usage, type, and requirements.
Logical networks allow both connectivity and segregation. You can create a logical network for storage communication to optimize network traffic between hosts and storage domains, a logical network specifically for all virtual machine traffic, or multiple logical networks to carry the traffic of groups of virtual machines.
The default logical network in all data centers is the management network called rhevm. The rhevm network carries all traffic, until another logical network is created. It is meant especially for management communication between the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager and hosts.
A logical network is a data center level resource; creating one in a data center makes it available to the clusters in a data center. A logical network that has been designated a Required must be configured in all of a cluster's hosts before it is operational. Optional networks can be used by any host they have been added to.
Data Center Objects

Figure 5.1. Data Center Objects


Warning

Do not change networking in a data center or a cluster if any hosts are running as this risks making the host unreachable.

5.2. Port Mirroring

Port mirroring copies layer 3 network traffic on given a logical network and host to a virtual interface on a virtual machine. This virtual machine can be used for network debugging and tuning, intrusion detection, and monitoring the behavior of other virtual machines on the same host and logical network.
The only traffic copied is internal to one logical network on one host. There is no increase on traffic on the network external to the host; however a virtual machine with port mirroring enabled uses more host CPU and RAM than other virtual machines.
Enable and disable port mirroring by editing network interfaces on virtual machines.
Port mirroring requires an IPv4 IP address.

Important

You should be aware that enabling port mirroring reduces the privacy of any other network users.

5.3. Required Networks, Optional Networks, and Virtual Machine Networks

In versions of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization prior to 3.1, all of the hosts in a cluster had to use all of the cluster's logical network to be operational. Hosts that were missing logical networks were marked Non-operational.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.1 distinguishes between required networks and optional networks.
Required networks must be applied to all hosts in a cluster for the cluster and network to be Operational. Logical networks are added to clusters as Required networks by default.
Optional networks are those logical networks that have not been explicitly declared Required networks. Optional networks can be implemented on only the hosts that use them. The presence or absence of these networks does not affect the Operational status of a host.
Use the Assign/UnAssign Network button to change a network's Required designation.
Virtual machine networks (called a VM network in the user interface) are logical networks designated to carry only virtual machine network traffic. Virtual machine networks can be required or optional.

Note

A virtual machine with a network interface on an optional virtual machine network will not start on a host without the network.

5.4. Logical Network Tasks

5.4.1. Creating a New Logical Network in a Data Center or Cluster

Summary
Create a logical network and define its use in the data center, or clusters in a data center.

Procedure 5.1. Defining Logical Networks in a Cluster

  1. Use the Data Centers or Clusters resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Logical Networks tab of the details pane to list the existing logical networks.
  3. Click New in the Data Centers details pane to open the New Logical Network window.
    Click Add Network in the Clusters details pane to open the New Logical Network window.
    New Logical Network

    Figure 5.2. New Logical Network


  4. Enter the Name and Description of the logical network.
  5. Select the check boxes to enable a VM Network, Enable VLAN tagging, and Override MTU.
  6. Select the cluster(s) you want to assign the network to. Note that the network is added as required Network to the selected clusters.
  7. Click OK to create the logical network.
Result
You have defined this logical network as a resource required by a cluster or clusters in the data center. You can now add this resource to the hosts in the cluster.

5.4.2. Explanation of Settings and Controls in the New Logical Network and Edit Logical Network Windows

New Logical Network Settings

Figure 5.3. New Logical Network Settings


The table below describes the settings for the New Logical Network window.

Table 5.1. New Logical Network Settings

Field Name
Description
Name
The name of the logical network. This text field has a 15-character limit and must be a unique name with any combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, hyphens, and underscores.
Description
The description of the logical network. This field is recommended but not mandatory.
VM Network
Select this option if only virtual machines use this network. If the network is used for traffic that does not involve virtual machines, like storage communications for example, do not select VM Network
Enable VLAN tagging
VLAN tagging is a security feature that gives all network traffic carried on the logical network a special characteristic. VLAN-tagged traffic cannot be read by interfaces that do not also have that characteristic. Use of VLANs on logical networks also allows a single network interface to be associated with multiple, differently VLAN-tagged logical networks. Enter a numeric value in the text entry field if VLAN tagging is enabled.
Override MTU
Set a custom maximum transmission unit for the logical network. You can use this to match the MTU supported by your new logical network to the MTU supported by the hardware it interfaces with. Enter a numeric value in the text entry field if MTU override is enabled.
Attach/Detach Network to/from Cluster(s)
Select the clusters that use the logical network.
Logical networks are added to clusters as Required networks by default. You can change this later using the Assign/UnAssign Network button.

5.4.3. Editing a Logical Network

Summary
Edit the settings of a logical network.

Procedure 5.2. Editing a Logical Network

  1. Use the Data Centers resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the data center of the logical network in the results list.
  2. Click the Logical Networks tab in the details pane to list the logical networks in the data center.
  3. Select a logical network and click Edit to open the Edit Logical Network window.
  4. You are required to detach all clusters before editing the logical network settings. Clear the cluster check boxes in the Attach/Detach Network to/from Cluster(s) area and click Apply to open the Attach/Detach Network to/from Clusters confirmation window.
    Select the Approve operation check box and click OK to detach the clusters and enable editing of the logical network.
  5. Edit the necessary settings.
  6. Attach the necessary clusters.
  7. Click OK to save the changes.
Result
You have updated the settings of your logical network.

5.4.4. Designate a Specific Traffic Type for a Logical Network with the Assign/UnAssign Window

Summary
Specify the traffic type for the logical network to optimize the network traffic flow.

Procedure 5.3. Assigning or UnAssigning a Logical Network to a Cluster

  1. Use the Clusters resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the cluster in the results list.
  2. Select the Logical Networks tab in the details pane to list the logical networks assigned to the cluster.
  3. Click Assign/UnAssign Networks to open the Assign/UnAssign Networks window.
    Assign/UnAssign Networks

    Figure 5.4. Assign/UnAssign Networks


  4. Select appropriate check boxes.
  5. Click OK to save the changes and close the window.
Result
You have optimized the network traffic flow for the logical network.

5.4.5. Explanation of Settings in the Assign/UnAssign Window

The table below describes the settings for the Assigning/UnAssigning window.

Table 5.2. Assign/UnAssign Networks Settings

Field
Description/Action
Assign
Assigns the logical network to all hosts in the cluster.
Required
All hosts in the cluster require the logical network to be attached to an active NIC for the logical network to be operational.
VM Network
The logical network carries the virtual machine network traffic.
Display Network
The logical network carries the virtual machine SPICE and virtual network controller traffic.

5.4.6. Adding Multiple VLANs to a Single Network Interface using Logical Networks

Summary
Multiple VLANs can be added to a single network interface to separate traffic on the one host.

Important

You must have created more than one logical network, all with the Enable VLAN tagging check box selected in the New Logical Network or Edit Logical Network windows.

Procedure 5.4. Adding Multiple VLANs to a Network Interface using Logical Networks

  1. Use the Hosts resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select in the results list a host associated with the cluster to which your VLAN-tagged logical networks are assigned.
  2. Click the Network Interfaces tab in the details pane to list the physical network interfaces attached to the data center.
  3. Click Setup Host Networks to open the Setup Host Networks window.
  4. Drag your VLAN-tagged logical networks into the Assigned Logical Networks area next to the physical network interface. The physical network interface can have multiple logical networks assigned due to the VLAN tagging.
    Setup Host Networks

    Figure 5.5. Setup Host Networks


  5. Edit the logical networks by hovering your cursor over an assigned logical network and clicking the pencil icon to open the Edit Network window.
    If your logical network definition is not synchronized with the network configuration on the host, select the Sync network check box.
    Select a Boot Protocol from:
    • None,
    • DHCP, or
    • Static,
      Provide the IP and Subnet Mask.
    Click OK.
  6. Select the Verify connectivity between Host and Engine check box to run a network check; this will only work if the host is in maintenance mode.
  7. Select the Save network configuration check box
  8. Click OK.
Add the logical network to each host in the cluster by editing a NIC on each host in the cluster. After this is done, the network will become operational
Result
You have added multiple VLAN-tagged logical networks to a single interface. This process can be repeated multiple times, selecting and editing the same network interface each time on each host to add logical networks with different VLAN tags to a single network interface.

Chapter 6. Hosts

6.1. Introduction to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hosts

Hosts, also known as hypervisors, are the physical servers on which virtual machines run. Full virtualization is provided by using a loadable Linux kernel module called Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM).
KVM can concurrently host multiple virtual machines running either Windows or Linux operating systems. Virtual machines run as individual Linux processes and threads on the host machine and are managed remotely by the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. A Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment has one or more hosts attached to it.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization supports two methods of installing hosts. You can use the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor installation media, or install hypervisor packages on a standard Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor has security features enabled. Security Enhanced Linux (SELinux) and the iptables firewall are fully configured and on by default. The Manager can open required ports on Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts when it adds them to the environment. For a full list of ports, see Virtualization Host Firewall Requirements.
A host is a physical 64-bit server with the Intel VT or AMD-V extensions running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1 or later AMD64/Intel 64 version.

Important

Support is still ongoing for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.4 and 5.5 that already belong to existing Clusters. However, the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Guest Agent is now included in the virtio serial channel, whereas before it was in a separate channel. As a result, the Guest Agent installed on Windows guests on Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts that are upgraded from version 5 to 6 lose connection to the Manager.
A physical host on the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization platform:
  • Must belong to only one cluster in the system.
  • Must have CPUs that support the AMD-V or Intel VT hardware virtualization extensions.
  • Must have CPUs that support all functionality exposed by the virtual CPU type selected upon cluster creation.
  • Has a minimum of 2 GB RAM.
  • Can have an assigned system administrator with system permissions.
Administrators can receive the latest security advisories from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization watch list. Subscribe to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization watch list to receive new security advisories for Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization products by email. Subscribe by completing this form:

6.2. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor Hosts

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor hosts are installed using a special build of Red Hat Enterprise Linux with only the packages required to host virtual machines. They run stateless, not writing any changes to disk unless explicitly required to.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor hosts are approved rather than added. They are functionally equivalent to Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts, and can coexist in the same environment.

6.3. Red Hat Enterprise Linux Hosts

You can use a standard Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation on capable hardware as a host. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization supports hosts running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Server AMD64/Intel 64 version.
Adding a host can take some time, as the following steps are completed by the platform: virtualization checks, installation of packages, creation of bridge and a reboot of the host. Use the Details pane to monitor the hand-shake process as the host and management system establish a connection.

6.4. Host Tasks

6.4.1. Adding a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Host

Summary
A Red Hat Enterprise Linux host is based on a standard installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The physical host must be set up before you can add it the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment.
The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager logs into the host to perform virtualization checks, install packages, create a network bridge, and reboot the host. The process of adding a new host can take up to 10 minutes.

Procedure 6.1. Adding a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Host

  1. Click the Hosts resource tab to list the hosts in the results list.
  2. Click New to open the New Host window.
  3. Use the drop-down menus to select the Data Center and Host Cluster for the new host.
  4. Enter the Name, Address, and Root Password of the new host.
  5. If applicable, clear the Automatically configure host firewall check box.
  6. You can configure the Power Management and SPM using the applicable tabs now; however, as these are not fundamental to adding a Red Hat Enterprise Linux host, they are not covered in this procedure.
  7. Click OK to add the host and close the window.
Result
The new host displays in the list of hosts with a status of Installing. Once installation is complete, the status will update to Reboot. The host must be activated for the status to change to Up.

Note

You can view the progress of the installation in the details pane.

6.4.2. Explanation of Settings and Controls in the New Host and Edit Host Windows

6.4.2.1. Host General Settings Explained

These settings apply when editing host details or adding new Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts.
New Host Settings

Figure 6.1. New Host Settings


The General settings table contains the information required on the General tab of the New Host or Edit Host window.

Table 6.1. General settings

Field Name
Description
Name
The name of the cluster. This text field has a 40-character limit and must be a unique name with any combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, hyphens, and underscores.
Address
The IP address, or resolvable hostname of the host.
Data Center
The data center to which the host belongs.
Host Cluster
The cluster to which the host belongs.
Root password
The password of the host's root user. This can only be given when you add the host, it cannot be edited afterwards.

6.4.2.2. Host Power Management Settings Explained

Power Management Settings

Figure 6.2. Power Management Settings


The Power Management settings table contains the information required on the Power Management tab of the New Host or Edit Host windows.

Table 6.2. Power Management Settings

Field Name
Description
Address
The address to access your host's power management device. Either a resolvable hostname or and IP address.
User Name
User account to access the power management device with. You may have to set up a user on the device, or use the default user.
Password
Password for the user accessing the power management device.
Type
The type of power management device in your host.
Choose one of the following:
  • alom - Sun ALOM devices on the SPARC platform. Unsupported fencing device.
  • apc - APC Master MasterSwitch network power switch
  • bladecenter - IBM Bladecentre Remote Supervisor Adapter
  • drac5 - Dell Remote Access Controller for Dell computers
  • eps - ePowerSwitch 8M+ network power switch
  • ilo - HP Integrated Lights Out standard
  • ipmilan - Intelligent Platform Management Interface and Sun Integrated Lights Out Management devices.
  • rsa - IBM Remote Supervisor Adaptor
  • rsb - Fujitsu-Siemens RSB management interface
  • wti - WTI Network PowerSwitch
  • cicsco_ucs - Cisco Unified Computing System
Options
Power management device specific options. Give these as 'key=value' or 'key', refer to the documentation of your host's power management device for the options available.

6.4.2.3. SPM Priority Settings Explained

The SPM settings table details the information required on the SPM tab of the New Host or Edit Host window.

Table 6.3. SPM settings

Field Name
Description
SPM Priority
Likelihood that the host will be given the role of Storage Pool Manager(SPM). Choose between Low, Normal, and High priority.

6.4.3. Configuring Host Power Management Settings

Summary
Configure your host power management device settings to perform host life cycle operations (stop, start, restart) from the Administration Portal.

Procedure 6.2. Configuring Power Management Settings

  1. Use the Hosts resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the host in the results list.
  2. Click Edit to open the Edit Host window.
  3. Click the Power Management tab to display the Power Management settings.
  4. Select the Enable Power Management check box to enable the fields
  5. Enter the Address, User Name, and Password of the power management device into the appropriate fields.
  6. Use the drop-down menu to select the Type of power management device.
  7. Enter the Options for the power management device. Please use a comma-separated list of 'key=value' or 'key'.
  8. Click Test to ensure the settings are correct.
  9. Click OK to save your settings and close the window.
Result
You have configured the power management settings for the host. The Power Management drop-down menu is now enabled in the Administration Portal.

6.4.4. Configuring Host Storage Pool Manager (SPM) Settings

Summary
The SPM priority setting of a host alters the likelihood of the host being assigned the SPM role: a host with high SPM priority will be assigned the SPM role before a host with low SPM priority.

Procedure 6.3. Configuring SPM settings

  1. Use the Hosts resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the host in the results list.
  2. Click Edit to open the Edit Host window.
  3. Click the SPM tab to display the SPM Priority settings.
  4. Use the radio buttons to select the appropriate SPM priority for the host.
  5. Click OK to save the settings and close the window.
Result
You have configured the SPM priority of the host.

6.4.5. Editing a Resource

Summary
Edit the properties of a resource. The Edit window is identical to the New window, except that some fields are disabled.

Procedure 6.4. Editing a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click Edit to open the Edit window.
  3. Change the necessary properties and click OK.
Result
The new properties are saved to the resource. The Edit window will not close if a property field is invalid.

6.4.6. Approving Newly Added Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor Hosts

Summary
You have to install your Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor hosts before you can approve them in the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. Read about installing Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors in the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Installation Guide.
Once installed, the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor host is visible in the Administration Portal but not active. Approve it so that it can host virtual machines.

Procedure 6.5. Approving newly added Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor hosts

  1. In the Hosts tab, select the host you recently installed using the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor host installation media. This host shows a status of Pending Approval.
  2. Click the Approve button.
Result
The host's status changes to Up and it can be used to run virtual machines.

Note

You can also add this host using the Adding a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Host procedure, which utilizes the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor host's IP address and the password that was set on the RHEV-M screen.

6.4.7. Moving a Host to Maintenance Mode

Summary
Many common maintenance tasks, including network configuration and deployment of software updates, require that hosts be placed into maintenance mode. When a host is placed into maintenance mode the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager attempts to migrate all running virtual machines to alternative hosts.
The normal prerequisites for live migration apply, in particular there must be at least one active host in the cluster with capacity to run the migrated virtual machines.

Procedure 6.6. Moving a Host to Maintenance Mode

  1. Use the Hosts resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the host in the results list.
  2. Click Maintenance to open the Maintenance Host(s) confirmation window.
  3. Click OK to initiate maintenance mode.
Result:
All running virtual machines are migrated to alternative hosts. The Status field of the host changes to Preparing for Maintenance, and finally Maintenance when the operation completes successfully.

6.4.8. Activating a host from maintenance mode

Summary
A host that has been placed into maintenance mode, or recently added to the environment, must be activated before it can be used.

Procedure 6.7. Activating a Host from Maintenance Mode

  1. Use the Hosts resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the host in the results list.
  2. Click Activate.
Result
The host status changes to Unassigned, and finally Up when the operation is complete. Virtual machines can now run on the host.

6.4.9. Removing a Host

Summary
Remove a host from your virtualized environment.

Procedure 6.8. Removing a host

  1. Use the Hosts resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the host in the results list.
  2. Place the host into maintenance mode.
  3. Click Remove to open the Remove Host(s) confirmation window.
  4. Click OK.
Result
Your host has been removed from the environment and is no longer visible in the Hosts tab.

6.4.10. Customizing Hosts with Tags

Summary
You can use tags to store information about your hosts. You can then search for hosts based on tags.

Procedure 6.9. Customizing hosts with tags

  1. Use the Hosts resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the host in the results list.
  2. Click Assign Tags to open the Assign Tags window.
    Assign Tags Window

    Figure 6.3. Assign Tags Window


  3. The Assign Tags window lists all available tags. Select the check boxes of applicable tags.
  4. Click OK to assign the tags and close the window.
Result
You have added extra, searchable information about your host as tags.

6.5. Hosts and Networking

6.5.1. Editing Host Network Interfaces and Adding Logical Networks to Hosts

Summary
You can change the settings of host network interfaces. Moving the rhevm management logical network between interfaces, and adding a newly created logical network to a network interface are common reasons to edit host networking.

Procedure 6.10. Editing Host Network Interfaces and Adding Logical Networks to Hosts

  1. Use the Hosts resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the host in the results.
  2. Click the Network Interfaces tab in the details pane to list the network interfaces attached to the host and their configurations.
  3. Click the Setup Host Networks button to open the Setup Host Networks window.
    The Setup Host Networks window

    Figure 6.4. The Setup Host Networks window


  4. Attach a logical network to a network interface by selecting and dragging a logical network into the Assigned Logical Networks area next to the network interface.
    Alternatively, right-click the logical network and select a network interface from the drop-down menu.
  5. Edit the logical networks by hovering your cursor over an assigned logical network and clicking the pencil icon to open the Edit Network window.
    If your logical network definition is not synchronized with the network configuration on the host, select the Sync network check box.
    Select a Boot Protocol from:
    • None,
    • DHCP, or
    • Static.
      If you have chosen Static, provide the IP and Subnet Mask.
    Click OK.
  6. Select the Verify connectivity between Host and Engine check box to run a network check; this will only work if the host is in maintenance mode.
  7. Select the Save network configuration check box if you want these network changes to be made persistent when the environment is rebooted.
  8. Click OK to implement the changes and close the window.
Result
You have assigned logical networks to network interfaces and configured the host network.

6.5.2. Creating a Bond Device using the Administration Portal

Summary
You can bond two network interfaces of the same make and model together using one of the 4 supported bonding modes. This type of configuration can increase available bandwidth and reliability.

Procedure 6.11. Creating a Bond Device using the Administration Portal

  1. Use the Hosts resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the host in the results list.
  2. Click the Network Interfaces tab in the details pane to list the physical network interfaces attached to the host.
  3. Click Setup Host Networks to open the Setup Host Networks window.
  4. Select and drag one of the interfaces over the top of another interface and drop it to open the Create New Bond window.
    Alternatively, right-click the interface and select another interface from the drop-down menu.
    Bond Devices Window

    Figure 6.5. Bond Devices Window


  5. Select the Bond Name and Bonding Mode from the drop-down menus.
    Bonding modes 1, 2, 4, and 5 can be selected. Any other mode can be configured using the Custom option.
  6. Click OK to create the bond and close the Create New Bond window.
  7. Assign a logical network to the newly created bonded interface.
  8. Optionally choose to Verify connectivity between Host and Engine and Save network configuration.
  9. Click OK accept the changes and close the Setup Host Networks window.
Result:
Your two interfaces are a linked bond device and can be edited as a single interface. The bond device lists in the Network Interfaces tab of the details pane for the selected host.
Bonding must be enabled for the ports of the switch used by the host. The process by which bonding is enabled is slightly different for each switch; consult the manual provided by your switch vendor for detailed information on how to enable bonding.

6.5.3. Saving a host network configuration

Summary
One of the options when configuring a host network is to save the configuration as you apply it, making the changes persistent.
Any changes made to the host network configuration will be temporary if you did not select the Save network configuration check box in the Setup Host Networks window.
Save the host network configuration to make it persistent.

Procedure 6.12. Saving a host network configuration

  1. Use the Hosts resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the host in the results list.
  2. Click the Network Interfaces tab on the Details pane to list the NICs on the host, their address, and other specifications.
  3. Click the Save Network Configuration button.
  4. The host network configuration is saved and the following message is displayed on the task bar: "Network Changes were saved on host <Hostname>."
Result
The host's network configuration is saved persistently and will survive reboots.

6.6. Host Resilience

6.6.1. Host High Availability

The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager uses fencing to keep the hosts in a cluster responsive. A Non Responsive host is different from a Non Operational host. Non Operational hosts can be communiated with by the Manager, but have an incorrect configuation, for example a missing logical network. Non Responsive hosts cannot be communicated with by the Manager.
If a host with a power management device looses communication with the Manager, it can be fenced (rebooted) from the Administration Portal. All the virtual machines running on that host are stopped, and highly available virtual machines are started on a different host.
All power management operations are done using a proxy host, as opposed to directly by the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. At least two hosts are required for power management operations.
Fencing allows a cluster to react to unexpected host failures as well as enforce power saving, load balancing, and virtual machine availability policies. You should configure the fencing parameters for your host's power management device and test their correctness from time to time.
Hosts can be fenced automatically using the power management parameters, or manually by right-clicking on a host and using the options on the menu. In a fencing operation, a non-responsive host is re-booted, and if the host does not return to an active status within a prescribed time, it remains non-responsive pending manual intervention and troubleshooting.
If the host is required to run virtual machines that are highly available, power management must be enabled and configured.

6.6.2. Setting Fencing Parameters on a Host

The parameters for host fencing are set using the Power Management fields on the New Host or Edit Host windows. Power management enables the system to fence a troublesome host using an additional interface such as a Remote Access Card (RAC).
All power management operations are done using a proxy host, as opposed to directly by the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. At least two hosts are required for power managment operations.

Procedure 6.13. Setting fencing parameters on a host

  1. Use the Hosts resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the host in the results list.
  2. Click Edit to open the Edit Host window.
  3. Click the Power Management tab.
    Power Management Settings

    Figure 6.6. Power Management Settings


  4. Select the Enable Power Management check box to enable the fields.
  5. Enter the Address, User Name, and Password of the power management device.
  6. Select the power management device Type from the drop-down menu.
  7. Enter the specific options of the power management device. Use a comma-separated list of 'key=value' or 'key' entries.
  8. Click the Test button to test the power management device. Test Succeeded, Host Status is: on will display upon successful verification.

    Warning

    Power management parameters (userid, password, options, etc) are tested by Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager only during setup and manually after that. If you choose to ignore alerts about incorrect parameters, or if the parameters are changed on the power management hardware without the corresponding change in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager, fencing is likely to fail when most needed.
  9. Click OK to save the changes and close the window.
Result
You are returned to the list of hosts. Note that the exclamation mark next to the host's name has now disappeared, signifying that power management has been successfully configured.

6.6.3. Using Host Power Management Functions

Summary
When power management has been configured for a host, you can access a number of options from the Administration Portal interface. While each power management device has its own customizable options, they all support the basic options to start, stop, and restart a host.

Procedure 6.14. Using Host Power Management Functions

  1. Use the Hosts resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the host in the results list.
  2. Click the Power Management drop-down menu.
    Restart

    Figure 6.7. Restart


  3. Select one of the following options:
    • Restart: This option stops the host and waits until the host's status changes to Down. When the agent has verified that the host is down, the highly available virtual machines are restarted on another host in the cluster. The agent then restarts this host. When the host is ready for use its status displays as Up.
    • Start: This option starts the host and lets it join a cluster. When it is ready for use its status displays as Up.
    • Stop: This option powers off the host. Before using this option, ensure that the virtual machines running on the host have been migrated to other hosts in the cluster. Otherwise the virtual machines will crash and only the highly available virtual machines will be restarted on another host. When the host has been stopped its status displays as Non-Operational.
  4. Selecting one of the above options opens a confirmation window. Click OK to confirm and proceed.
Summary
The selected action is performed.

6.6.4. Manually Fencing or Isolating a Non Responsive Host

Summary
If a host unpredictably goes into a non-responsive state, for example, due to a hardware failure; it can significantly affect the performance of the environment. If you do not have a power management device, or it is incorrectly configured, you can reboot the host manually.

Warning

Do not use the Confirm host has been rebooted option unless you have manually rebooted the host. Using this option while the host is still running can lead to a virtual machine image corruption.

Procedure 6.15. Manually fencing or isolating a non-responsive host

  1. On the Hosts tab, select the host. The status must display as non-responsive.
  2. Manually reboot the host. This could mean physically entering the lab and rebooting the host.
  3. On the Administration Portal, right-click the host entry and select the Confirm Host has been rebooted button.
    The Host Right-click menu

    Figure 6.8. The Host Right-click menu


  4. A message displays prompting you to ensure that the host has been shut down or rebooted. Select the Approve Operation check box and click OK.
Result
You have manually rebooted your host, allowing highly available virtual machines to be started on active hosts. You confirmed your manual fencing action in the Administrator Portal, and the host is back online.

6.7. Hosts and Permissions

6.7.1. Managing System Permissions for a Host

The system administrator, as the SuperUser, manages all aspects of the Administration Portal. More specific administrative roles can be assigned to other users. These restricted administrator roles are useful for empowering a user with certain administrative privileges that limit them to a specific resource: a DataCenterAdmin role has administrator privileges only for the assigned data center, a HostAdmin has administrator privileges only for the assigned host, and so forth.
A host administrator is a system administration role for a specific host only. This is useful in clusters with multiple hosts, where each host requires a system administrator. You can use the Configure button in the header bar to assign a host administrator for all hosts in the environment.
The host administrator role permits the following actions:
  • Edit the configuration of the host;
  • Set up the logical networks; and
  • Remove the host.
You can also change the system administrator of a host by removing the existing system administrator and adding the new system administrator.

6.7.2. Host Administrator Roles Explained

Host Permission Roles
The table below describes the administrator roles and privileges applicable to host administration.

Table 6.4. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization System Administrator Roles

Role Privileges Notes
HostAdmin Host Administrator Can configure, manage, and remove a specific host.
NetworkAdmin Network Administrator Can configure, manage, and remove networks on a host. A network administrator of host inherits network permissions for virtual machines on the host as well.

6.7.3. Assigning an Administrator or User Role to a Resource

Summary
Assign administrator or user roles to resources to allow users to access or manage that resource.

Procedure 6.16. Assigning a Role to a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Permissions tab of the details pane to list the assigned users, the user's role, and the inherited permissions for the selected resource.
  3. Click Add to open the Add Permission to User window.
  4. Enter the name or user name of an existing user into the Search text box and click Go. Select a user from the resulting list of possible matches.
  5. Select a role from the Role to Assign: drop-down menu.
  6. Click OK to assign the role and close the window.
Result
You have assigned a role to a user; the user now has the inherited permissions of that role enabled for that resource.

6.7.4. Removing an Administrator or User Role from a Resource

Summary
Remove an administrator or user role from a resource; the user loses the inherited permissions associated with the role for that resource.

Procedure 6.17. Removing a Role from a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Permissions tab of the details pane to list the assigned users, the user's role, and the inherited permissions for the selected resource.
  3. Select the user to remove from the resource.
  4. Click Remove. The Remove Permission window opens to confirm permissions removal.
  5. Click OK to remove the user role.
Result
You have removed the user's role, and the associated permissions, from the resource.

Chapter 7. Storage

7.1. Introduction to Storage in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization uses a centralized storage system for virtual machine disk images, ISO files and snapshots. Storage networking can be implemented using:
  • Network File System (NFS).
  • Other POSIX compliant file systems.
  • Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI).
  • Local storage attached directly to the virtualization hosts.
  • Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP).
Setting up storage is a prerequisite for a new data center because a data center cannot be initialized unless storage domains are attached and activated.
As a Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization system administrator, you need to create, configure, attach and maintain storage for the virtualized enterprise. You should be familiar with the storage types and their use. Read your storage array vendor's guides, and refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Storage Administration Guide for more information on the concepts, protocols, requirements or general usage of storage.
The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization platform enables you to assign and manage storage using the Administration Portal's Storage tab. The Storage results list displays all the storage domains, and the details pane shows general information about the domain.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization platform has three types of storage domains:
  • Data Domain: A data domain holds the virtual hard disks and OVF files of all the virtual machines and templates in a data center. In addition, snapshots of the virtual machines are also stored in the data domain.
    The data domain cannot be shared across data centers, and the data domain must be of the same type as the data center. For example, a data center of a iSCSI type, must have an iSCSI data domain.
    You must attach a data domain to a data center before you can attach domains of other types to it.
  • ISO Domain: ISO domains store ISO files (or logical CDs) used to install and boot operating systems and applications for the virtual machines. An ISO domain removes the data center's need for physical media. An ISO domain can be shared across different data centers. ISO storage domains use NFS storage.
  • Export Domain: Export domains are temporary storage repositories that are used to copy and move images between data centers and Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environments. Export domains can be used to backup virtual machines. An export domain can be moved between data centers, however, it can only be active in one data center at a time.

    Important

    Support for export storage domains backed by storage on anything other than NFS is being deprecated. While existing export storage domains imported from Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 2.2 environments remain supported new export storage domains must be created on NFS storage.
Only commence configuring and attaching storage for your Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment once you have determined the storage needs of your data center(s).

Important

To add storage domains you must be able to successfully access the Administration Portal, and there must be at least one host connected with a status of Up.

7.2. Understanding Storage Domains

A storage domain is a collection of images that have a common storage interface. A storage domain contains complete images of templates and virtual machines (including snapshots), or ISO files. A storage domain can be made of either block devices (SAN - iSCSI or FCP) or a file system (NAS - NFS or other POSIX compliant file systems).
On NFS, all virtual disks, templates, and snapshots are files.
On SAN (iSCSI/FCP), each virtual disk, template or snapshot is a logical volume. Block devices are aggregated into a logical entity called a volume group, and then divided by LVM (Logical Volume Manager) into logical volumes for use as virtual hard disks. See Red Hat Enterprise Linux Logical Volume Manager Administration Guide for more information on LVM.
Virtual disks can have one of two formats, either Qcow2 or RAW. The type of storage can be either Sparse or Preallocated. Snapshots are always sparse but can be taken for disks created either as RAW or sparse.
Virtual machines that share the same storage domain can be migrated between hosts that belong to the same cluster.

7.3. Storage Metadata Versions in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization stores information about storage domains as metadata on the storage domains themselves. Each major release of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization has seen improved implementations of storage metadata.
  • V1 metadata (Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 2.x series)
    Each storage domain contains metadata describing its own structure, and all of the names of physical volumes that are used to back virtual machine disk images.
    Master domains additionally contain metadata for all the domains and physical volume names in the storage pool. The total size of this metadata is limited to 2 kb, limiting the number of storage domains that can be in a pool.
    Template and virtual machine base images are read only.
    V1 metadata is applicable to NFS, iSCSI, and FC storage domains.
  • V2 metadata (Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.0)
    All storage domain and pool metadata is stored as logical volume tags rather than written to a logical volume. Metadata about virtual machine disk volumes is still stored in a logical volume on the domains.
    Physical volume names are no longer included in the metadata.
    Template and virtual machine base images are read only.
    V2 metadata is applicable to iSCSI, and FC storage domains.
  • V3 metadata (Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.1)
    All storage domain and pool metadata is stored as logical volume tags rather than written to a logical volume. Metadata about virtual machine disk volumes is still stored in a logical volume on the domains.
    Virtual machine and template base images are no longer read only. This change enables live snapshots, live storage migration, and clone from snapshot.
    Support for unicode metadata is added, for non-English volume names.
    V3 metadata is applicable to NFS, POSIX, iSCSI, and FC storage domains.

Note

Upgrades between metadata versions are automatic. If you've upgraded from Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.0 to 3.1, your existing data centers are initially in 3.0 compatibility mode. When you upgrade your hosts and change your data center compatibility from 3.0 to 3.1, the storage metadata for your storage domains is automatically upgraded to version 3.

7.4. Preparing and Adding File-based Storage

7.4.1. Preparing NFS Storage

Summary
These steps must be taken to prepare an NFS file share on a server running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 for use with Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization.

Procedure 7.1. Preparing NFS Storage

  1. Install nfs-utils

    NFS functionality is provided by the nfs-utils package. Before file shares can be created, check that the package is installed by querying the RPM database for the system:
    $ rpm -qi nfs-utils
    If the nfs-utils package is installed then the package information will be displayed. If no output is displayed then the package is not currently installed. Install it using yum while logged in as the root user:
    # yum install nfs-utils
  2. Configure Boot Scripts

    To ensure that NFS shares are always available when the system is operational both the nfs and rpcbind services must start at boot time. Use the chkconfig command while logged in as root to modify the boot scripts.
    # chkconfig --add rpcbind
    # chkconfig --add nfs
    # chkconfig rpcbind on
    # chkconfig nfs on
    Once the boot script configuration has been done, start the services for the first time.
    # service rpcbind start
    # service nfs start
  3. Create Directory

    Create the directory you wish to share using NFS.
    # mkdir /exports/iso
    Replace /exports/iso with the name, and path of the directory you wish to use.
  4. Export Directory

    To be accessible over the network using NFS the directory must be exported. NFS exports are controlled using the /etc/exports configuration file. Each export path appears on a separate line followed by a tab character and any additional NFS options. Exports to be attached to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager must have the read, and write, options set.
    To grant read, and write access to /exports/iso using NFS for example you add the following line to the /etc/exports file.
    /exports/iso       *(rw)
    Again, replace /exports/iso with the name, and path of the directory you wish to use.
  5. Reload NFS Configuration

    For the changes to the /etc/exports file to take effect the service must be told to reload the configuration. To force the service to reload the configuration run the following command as root:
    # service nfs reload
  6. Set Permissions

    The NFS export directory must be configured for read write access and must be owned by vdsm:kvm. If these users do not exist on your external NFS server use the following command, assuming that /exports/iso is the directory to be used as an NFS share.
    # chown -R 36:36 /exports/iso
    The permissions on the directory must be set to allow read and write access to both the owner and the group. The owner should also have execute access to the directory. The permissions are set using the chmod command. The following command arguments set the required permissions on the /exports/iso directory.
    # chmod 0755 /exports/iso
Result
The NFS file share has been created, and is ready to be attached by the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.

7.4.2. Attaching NFS Storage

Summary
An NFS type Storage Domain is a mounted NFS share that is attached to a data center. It is used to provide storage for virtualized guest images and ISO boot media. Once NFS storage has been exported it must be attached to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager using the Administration Portal.
NFS data domains can be added to NFS data centers. You can add NFS, ISO, and export storage domains to data centers of any type.

Procedure 7.2. Attaching NFS Storage

  1. Click the Storage resource tab to list the existing storage domains.
  2. Click New Domain to open the New Domain window.
    NFS Storage

    Figure 7.1. NFS Storage


  3. Enter the Name of the storage domain.
  4. Select the Data Center, Domain Function / Storage Type, and Use Host from the drop-down menus.
    If applicable, select the Format from the drop-down menu.
  5. Enter the Export Path to be used for the storage domain.
    The export path should be in the format of 192.168.0.10:/data or domain.example.com:/data
  6. Click Advanced Parameters to enable further configurable settings. It is recommended that the values of these parameters not be modified.

    Important

    All communication to the storage domain is from the selected host and not directly from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. At least one active host must be attached to the chosen Data Center before the storage is configured.
  7. Click OK to create the storage domain and close the window.
Result
The new NFS data domain is displayed on the Storage tab with a status of Locked while the disk prepares. It is automatically attached to the data center upon completion.

7.4.3. Preparing Local Storage

Summary
A local storage domain can be set up on a host. When you set up host to use local storage, the host automatically gets added to a new data center and cluster that no other hosts can be added to. Multiple host clusters require that all hosts have access to all storage domains, which is not possible with local storage. Virtual machines created in a single host cluster cannot be migrated, fenced or scheduled.

Important

On Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors the only path permitted for use as local storage is /data/images. This directory already exists with the correct permissions on Hypervisor installations. The steps in this procedure are only required when preparing local storage on Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtualization hosts.

Procedure 7.3. Preparing Local Storage

  1. On the virtualization host, create the directory to be used for the local storage.
    # mkdir -p /data/images
  2. Ensure that the directory has permissions allowing read/write access to the vdsm user (UID 36) and kvm group (GID 36).
    # chown 36:36 /data /data/images
    # chmod 0755 /data /data/images
Result
Your local storage is ready to be added to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment.

7.4.4. Adding Local Storage

Summary
You have prepared the storage that is local to your host. Add it to the host to begin using it.
Adding local storage to a host in this manner causes the host to be put in a new data center and cluster. The local storage configuration window combines the creation of a data center, a cluster, and storage into a single process.

Procedure 7.4. Adding Local Storage

  1. Use the Hosts resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the host in the results list.
  2. Click Maintenance to place the host into maintenance mode.
  3. Click Configure Local Storage to open the Configure Local Storage window.
    Configure Local Storage Window

    Figure 7.2. Configure Local Storage Window


  4. Click the Edit buttons next to the Data Center, Cluster, and Storage fields to configure and name the local storage domain.
  5. Set the path to your local storage in the text entry field.
  6. If applicable, select the Memory Optimization tab to configure the memory optimization policy for the new local storage cluster.
  7. Click OK to save the settings and close the window.
Result
Your host comes online in a data center of its own.

7.5. Adding POSIX Compliant File System Storage

7.5.1. POSIX Compliant File System Storage in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.1 supports the use of POSIX (native) file systems for storage. POSIX file system support allows you to mount file systems using the same mount options that you would normally use when mounting them manually from the command line. This functionality is intended to allow access to storage not exposed using NFS, iSCSI, or FCP.

Important

Do not mount NFS storage by creating a POSIX compliant file system Storage Domain. Always create an NFS Storage Domain instead.

7.5.2. Attaching POSIX Compliant File System Storage

Summary
You want to use a POSIX compliant file system that is not exposed using NFS, iSCSI, or FCP as a storage domain.

Procedure 7.5. Attaching POSIX Compliant File System Storage

  1. Click the Storage resource tab to list the existing storage domains in the results list.
  2. Click New Domain to open the New Domain window.
    POSIX Storage

    Figure 7.3. POSIX Storage


  3. Enter the Name for the storage domain.
  4. Select the Data Center to be associated with the storage domain. The Data Center selected must be of type POSIX (POSIX compliant FS). Alternatively, select (none).
  5. Select Data / POSIX compliant FS from the Domain Function / Storage Type drop-down menu.
    If applicable, select the Format from the drop-down menu.
  6. Select a host from the Use Host drop-down menu. Only hosts within the selected data center will be listed. The host that you select will be used to connect the storage domain.
  7. Enter the Path to the POSIX file system, as you would normally provide it to the mount command.
  8. Enter the VFS Type, as you would normally provide it to the mount command using the -t argument. See man mount for a list of valid VFS types.
  9. Enter additional Mount Options, as you would normally provide them to the mount command using the -o argument. The mount options should be provided in a comma-separated list. See man mount for a list of valid mount options.
  10. Click OK to attach the new Storage Domain and close the window.
Result
You have used a supported mechanism to attach an unsupported file system as a storage domain.

7.6. Adding Block-based Storage

7.6.1. Storage multipathing

Multipathing is supported in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager by default. Setting up a multipathed storage domain is described later in this section. To configure multipathing for Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor hosts, see Red Hat Enterprise Linux Hypervisor Deployment Guide.

Warning

Do not add user_friendly_names and LUN aliases to a multipath.conf file on a Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor. user_friendly_names and LUN aliases are not supported and can lead to unpredictable system behavior.

7.6.2. Adding iSCSI Storage

Summary
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization platform supports iSCSI storage by creating a storage domain from a volume group made of pre-existing LUNs. Neither volume groups nor LUNs can be attached to more than one storage domain at a time.
For information regarding the setup and configuration of iSCSI on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, see the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Storage Administration Guide.

Note

You can only add an iSCSI storage domain to a data center that is set up for iSCSI storage type.

Procedure 7.6. Adding iSCSI Storage

  1. Click the Storage resource tab to list the existing storage domains in the results list.
  2. Click the New Domain button to open the New Domain window.
  3. Enter the Name of the new storage domain.
    New iSCSI Domain

    Figure 7.4. New iSCSI Domain


  4. Use the Data Center drop-down menu to select an iSCSI data center.
    If you do not yet have an appropriate iSCSI data center, select (none).
  5. Use the drop-down menus to select the Domain Function / Storage Type and the Format. The storage domain types that are not compatible with the chosen data center are not available.
  6. Select an active host in the Use Host field. If this is not the first data domain in a data center, you must select the data center's SPM host.

    Important

    All communication to the storage domain is via the selected host and not directly from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. At least one active host must exist in the system, and be attached to the chosen data center, before the storage is configured.
  7. The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager is able to map either iSCSI targets to LUNs, or LUNs to iSCSI targets. The New Domain window automatically displays known targets with unused LUNs when iSCSI is selected as the storage type. If the target that you are adding storage from is not listed then you can use target discovery to find it, otherwise proceed to the next step.

    iSCSI Target Discovery

    1. Click Discover Targets to enable target discovery options. When targets have been discovered and logged in to, the New Domain window automatically displays targets with LUNs unused by the environment.

      Note

      LUNs used externally to the environment are also displayed.
      You can use the Discover Targets options to add LUNs on many targets, or multiple paths to the same LUNs.
    2. Enter the fully qualified domain name or IP address of the iSCSI host in the Address field.
    3. Enter the port to connect to the host on when browsing for targets in the Port field. The default is 3260.
    4. If the Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is being used to secure the storage, select the User Authentication check box. Enter the CHAP username and CHAP password.
    5. Click the Discover button.
    6. Select the target you want to use from the discovery results and click the Login button.
      Alternatively, click the Login All to log in to all of the discovered targets.
  8. Click the + button next to the desired target. This will expand the entry and display all unused LUNs attached to the target.
  9. Select the check box for each LUN that you are using to create the storage domain.
  10. Click OK to create the storage domain and close the window.
Result
The new iSCSI storage domain displays on the storage tab. This can take up to 5 minutes.

7.6.3. Adding FCP Storage

Summary
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization platform supports SAN storage by creating a storage domain from a volume group made of pre-existing LUNs. Neither volume groups nor LUNs can be attached to more than one storage domain at a time.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization system administrators need a working knowledge of Storage Area Networks (SAN) concepts. SAN usually uses Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) for traffic between hosts and shared external storage. For this reason, SAN may occasionally be referred to as FCP storage.
For information regarding the setup and configuration of FCP or multipathing on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, please refer to the Storage Administration Guide and DM Multipath Guide.

Note

You can only add an FCP storage domain to a data center that is set up for FCP storage type.

Procedure 7.7. Adding FCP Storage

  1. Click the Storage resource tab to list all storage domains in the virtualized environment.
  2. Click New Domain to open the New Domain window.
  3. Enter the Name of the storage domain
    Adding FCP Storage

    Figure 7.5. Adding FCP Storage


  4. Use the Data Center drop-down menu to select an FCP data center.
    If you do not yet have an appropriate FCP data center, select (none).
  5. Use the drop-down menus to select the Domain Function / Storage Type and the Format. The storage domain types that are not compatible with the chosen data center are not available.
  6. Select an active host in the Use Host field. If this is not the first data domain in a data center, you must select the data center's SPM host.

    Important

    All communication to the storage domain is via the selected host and not directly from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. At least one active host must exist in the system, and be attached to the chosen data center, before the storage is configured.
  7. The New Domain window automatically displays known targets with unused LUNs when Data / Fibre Channel is selected as the storage type. Select the LUN ID check box to select all of the available LUNs.
    Alternatively, select the Add LUN check boxes for individual LUNs to use them with the FCP data domain.
  8. Click OK to create the storage domain and close the window.
Result
The new FCP data domain displays on the Storage tab. It will remain with a Locked status while it is being prepared for use. When ready, it is automatically attached to the data center. Select either Build New Domain or Use Existing Volume Group.

7.6.4. Un-useable LUNs in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization

In certain circumstances, the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager will not allow you to use a LUN to create a storage domain or virtual machine hard disk.
  • LUNs that are already part of the current Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment are automatically prevented from being used.
    Un-useable LUNs in the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Administration Portal

    Figure 7.6. Un-useable LUNs in the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Administration Portal


  • LUNs that are already being used by the SPM host will also display as in use. You can choose to forcefully over ride the contents of these LUNs, but the operation is not guaranteed to succeed.

7.7. Storage Tasks

7.7.1. Importing existing ISO or export storage domains

Summary
You have an ISO or export domain that you have been using with a different data center. You want to attach it to the data center you are using, and import virtual machines or use ISOs.

Procedure 7.8.  Importing an Existing ISO or Export Storage Domain

  1. Click the Storage resource tab to list all the available storage domains in the results list.
  2. Click Import Domain to open the Import Pre-Configured Domain window.
    Import Domain

    Figure 7.7. Import Domain


  3. Select the appropriate Domain Function / Storage Type from the following:
    • ISO
    • Export
    The Domain Function / Storage Type determines the availability of the Format field.
  4. Select the SPM host from the Use host drop-down menu.

    Important

    All communication to the storage domain is via the selected host and not from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. At least one host must be active and have access to the storage before the storage can be configured.
  5. Enter the Export path of the storage. The export path can be either a static IP address or a resolvable hostname. For example, 192.168.0.10:/Images/ISO or storage.demo.redhat.com:/exports/iso.
  6. Click OK to import the domain and close the window.
  7. The storage domain is imported and displays on the Storage tab. The next step is to attach it to a data center. This is described later in this chapter, .
Result
You have imported your export or ISO domain to you data center. Attach it to a data center to use it.

7.7.2. Populating the ISO Storage Domain

Summary
An ISO storage domain is attached to a data center, ISO images must be uploaded to it. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization provides an ISO uploader tool that ensures that the images are uploaded into the correct directory path, with the correct user permissions.
The creation of ISO images from physical media is not described in this document. It is assumed that you have access to the images required for your environment.

Procedure 7.9. Populating the ISO Storage Domain

  1. Copy the required ISO image to a temporary directory on the system running Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.
  2. Log in to the system running Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager as the root user.
  3. Use the rhevm-iso-uploader command to upload the ISO image. This action will take some time, the amount of time varies depending on the size of the image being uploaded and available network bandwidth.

    Example 7.1. ISO Uploader Usage

    In this example the ISO image RHEL6.iso is uploaded to the ISO domain called ISODomain using NFS. The command will prompt for an administrative username and password. The username must be provided in the form username@domain.
    # rhevm-iso-uploader --iso-domain=ISODomain upload RHEL6.iso

Result
The ISO image is uploaded and appears in the ISO storage domain specified. It is also available in the list of available boot media when creating virtual machines in the data center which the storage domain is attached to.

7.7.3. Moving storage domains to maintenance mode

Summary
Detaching and removing storage domains requires that they be in maintenance mode. This is required to redesignate another data domain as the master data domain.
Editing domains and expanding iSCSI domains by adding more LUNs can only be done when the domain is active.

Important

Put any active ISO and export domains in maintenance mode using this procedure.

Procedure 7.10. Moving storage domains to maintenance mode

  1. Use the Storage resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the storage domain in the results list.
  2. Shut down and move all the virtual machines running on the storage domain.
  3. Click the Data Centers tab in the details pane.
  4. Click Maintenance. The storage domain is deactivated and has an Inactive status in the results list.
Result
You can now edit, detach, remove, or reactivate the inactive storage domains from the data center.

Note

You can also activate, detach and place domains into maintenance mode using the Storage tab on the details pane of the data center it is associated with.

7.7.4. Editing a Resource

Summary
Edit the properties of a resource. The Edit window is identical to the New window, except that some fields are disabled.

Procedure 7.11. Editing a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click Edit to open the Edit window.
  3. Change the necessary properties and click OK.
Result
The new properties are saved to the resource. The Edit window will not close if a property field is invalid.

7.7.5. Activating storage domains

Summary
If you have been making changes to a data center's storage, you have to put storage domains into maintenance mode. Activate a storage domain to resume using it.
  1. Use the Storage resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the inactive storage domain in the results list.
  2. Click the Data Centers tab in the details pane.
  3. Select the appropriate data center and click Activate.

    Important

    If you attempt to activate the ISO domain before activating the data domain, an error message displays and the domain is not activated.
Result
Your storage domain is active and ready for use.

7.7.6. Removing a storage domain

Summary
You have a storage domain in your data center that you want to remove from the virtualized environment.

Procedure 7.12. Removing a Storage Domain

  1. Use the Storage resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the appropriate storage domain in the results list.
  2. Move the domain into maintenance mode to deactivate it.
  3. Detach the domain from the data center.
  4. Click Remove to open the Remove Storage confirmation window.
  5. Select a host from the list.
  6. Click OK to remove the storage domain and close the window.
Summary
The storage domain is permanently removed from the environment.

7.7.7. Destroying a storage domain

Summary
A storage domain encountering errors may not be able to be removed through the normal procedure. Destroying a storage domain will forcibly remove the storage domain from the virtualized environment without reference to the export directory.
When the storage domain is destroyed, you are required to manually fix the export directory of the storage domain before it can be used again.

Procedure 7.13. Destroying a Storage Domain

  1. Use the Storage resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the appropriate storage domain in the results list.
  2. Right-click the storage domain and select Destroy to open the Destroy Storage Domain confirmation window.
  3. Select the Approve operation check box and click OK to destroy the storage domain and close the window.
Result
The storage domain has been destroyed. Manually clean the export directory for the storage domain to recycle it.

7.7.8. Detaching the Export Domain

Summary
Detach the export domain from the data center to import the templates to another data center.

Procedure 7.14. Detaching an Export Domain from the Data Center

  1. Use the Storage resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the export domain in the results list.
  2. Click the Data Centers tab in the details pane and select the export domain.
  3. Click Maintenance to put the export domain into maintenance mode.
  4. Click Detach to open the Detach Storage confirmation window.
  5. Click OK to detach the export domain.
Result
The export domain has been detached from the data center, ready to be attached to another data center.

7.7.9. Attaching an Export Domain to a Data Center

Summary
Attach the export domain to a data center.

Procedure 7.15. Attaching an Export Domain to a Data Center

  1. Use the Storage resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the export domain in the results list.
  2. Click the Data Centers tab in the details pane.
  3. Click Attach to open the Attach to Data Center window.
  4. Select the radio button of the appropriate data center.
  5. Click OK to attach the export domain.
  6. Select the newly attached data center in the details pane and click Activate.
Result
The export domain is attached to the data center and activated.

7.8. Red Hat Storage Volumes

7.8.1. Introduction to Red Hat Storage Volumes

You can use the console to create and start new volumes. Volumes combine storage from more than one Red Hat Storage server into a single global namespace. A volume is a logical collection of bricks where each brick is an export directory on a Red Hat Storage server in the trusted storage pool. Most of the management operations of Red Hat Storage Console happen on the volume.
You can monitor volumes in your cluster from the Volumes tab. The Volumes tab becomes accessible when you use the tree mode to access a gluster enabled cluster.

Note

Bricks must be created externally on Red Hat Storage nodes.

7.8.2. Gluster Storage Terminology

Table 7.1. Data Center Properties

Term
Definition
Brick
A brick is the GlusterFS basic unit of storage, represented by an export directory on a server in the trusted storage pool. A Brick is expressed by combining a server with an export directory in the following format:
SERVER:EXPORT
For example:
myhostname:/exports/myexportdir/
Block Storage
Block special files or block devices correspond to devices through which the system moves data in the form of blocks. These device nodes often represent addressable devices such as hard disks, CD-ROM drives, or memory-regions. Red Hat Storage supports XFS file system with extended attributes.
Cluster
A trusted pool of linked computers, working together closely thus in many respects forming a single computer. In Red Hat Storage terminology a cluster is called as trusted storage pool.
Client
The machine which mounts the volume (this may also be a server)
Distributed File System
A file system that allows multiple clients to concurrently access data spread across multiple servers/bricks in a trusted storage pool. Data sharing among multiple locations is fundamental to all distributed file system.
Geo-Replication
Geo-replication provides a continuous, asynchronous, and incremental replication service from site to another over Local Area Networks (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), and across the Internet.
glusterd
The Gluster management daemon that needs to run on all servers in the trusted storage pool.
Metadata
Metadata is data providing information about one or more other pieces of data.
N-way Replication
Local synchronous data replication typically deployed across campus or Amazon Web Services Availability Zones.
Namespace
Namespace is an abstract container or environment created to hold a logical grouping of unique identifiers or symbols. Each Red Hat Storage trusted storage pool exposes a single namespace as a POSIX mount point that contains every file in the trusted storage pool.
POSIX
Portable Operating System Interface (for Unix) is the name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API), along with shell and utilities interfaces for software compatible with variants of the UNIX operating system. Red Hat Storage exports a fully POSIX compatible file system.
RAID
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) is a technology that provides increased storage reliability through redundancy, combining multiple low-cost, less-reliable disk drives components into a logical unit where all drives in the array are interdependent.
RRDNS
Round Robin Domain Name Service (RRDNS) is a method to distribute load across application servers. RRDNS is implemented by creating multiple A records with the same name and different IP addresses in the zone file of a DNS server.
Server
The machine (virtual or bare metal) which hosts the actual file system in which data will be stored.
Scale-Up Storage
Increases the capacity of the storage device, but only in a single dimension. An example might be adding additional disk capacity to a single computer in a trusted storage pool.
Scale-Out Storage
Increases the capability of a storage device in multiple dimensions. For example adding a server to a trusted storage pool increases CPU, disk capacity, and throughput for the trusted storage pool.
Subvolume
A brick after being processed by at least one translator.
Translator
A translator connects to one or more subvolumes, does something with them, and offers a subvolume connection.
Trusted Storage Pool
A storage pool is a trusted network of storage servers. When you start the first server, the storage pool consists of that server alone.
User Space
Applications running in user space don’t directly interact with hardware, instead using the kernel to moderate access. User Space applications are generally more portable than applications in kernel space. Gluster is a user space application.
Virtual File System (VFS)
VFS is a kernel software layer that handles all system calls related to the standard Linux file system. It provides a common interface to several kinds of file systems
Volfile
Volfile is a configuration file used by glusterfs process. Volfile will be usually located at /var/lib/glusterd/vols/VOLNAME.
Volume
A volume is a logical collection of bricks. Most of the gluster management operations happen on the volume.

7.8.3. Creating A Storage Volume

Summary
You can create new volumes in your storage environment. When creating a new volume, you must specify the bricks that comprise the volume and specify whether the volume is to be distributed, replicated, or striped.

Procedure 7.16. Creating A Storage Volume

  1. Click the Volumes tab. The Volumes tab displays a list of all volumes in the system.
  2. Click the Create Volume button. The Create Volume dialog box displays.
    Create Volume

    Figure 7.8. Create Volume


  3. Select the cluster from the Volume Cluster drop-down list.
  4. In the Name field, enter the name of the volume.
  5. Select the type of the volume from the Type drop-down list. You can choose the volume type as Distribute, Replicate, or Stripe.
  6. Add bricks to your volume. Bricks must be created externally on the Red Hat Storage nodes. Click Add Bricks.
  7. Select the Access Protocol for the new volume by selecting GlusterFS,or NFS, or both checkboxes.
  8. In the Allow Access From field, specify the volume access control as a comma-separated list of IP addresses or hostnames.
    You can use wildcards to specify ranges of addresses such as an asterisk (*) which specifies all IP addresses or hostnames. You need to use IP-based authentication for Gluster Filesystem and NFS exports.
  9. Click OK to create the volume. The new volume is added and displays on the Volume tab.
Result
You've added a Red Hat Storage volume to store virtual machines on.

7.8.4. Adding Bricks to a Volume

Summary
You can expand your cluster by adding new bricks. You need to add at least one brick to a distributed volume, multiples of two bricks to replicated volumes, multiples of four bricks to striped volumes when expanding your storage space.

Procedure 7.17. Adding Bricks to a Volume

  1. On the Volumes tab on the navigation pane, select the volume to which you want to add bricks.
  2. Select the volume to add new bricks. Click the Bricks tab from the Details pane.
  3. Click Add Bricks to open the Add Bricks window.
    Add Bricks

    Figure 7.9. Add Bricks


  4. A list of available bricks appears, with server addresses and brick directory names. Tick the checkbox of the bricks you wish to use.
  5. Click OK.
Result
The new bricks are added to the volume and the bricks displays in the volume's Bricks tab.

7.8.5. Explanation of Settings in the Add Bricks window

Table 7.2. Add Bricks Tab Properties

Field Name
Description
Volume Type
Displays the type of volume. This field cannot be changed, it was set when you created the volume.
Server
The selected server to add new bricks.
Brick Directory
The directory in the server.

7.8.6. Starting Volumes

Summary
After a volume has been created or an existing volume has been stopped, it needs to be started before it can be used.

Procedure 7.18. Starting Volumes

  1. In the Volumes tab, select the volume to be started.
    You can select multiple volumes to start by using Shift or Ctrl key.
  2. Click the Start button.
The volume status changes to Up.
Result
You can now use your volume for virtual machine storage.

7.8.7. Tuning Volumes

Summary
Tuning volumes allows you to affect their performance. To tune volumes, you add options to them.

Procedure 7.19. Tuning Volumes

  1. Click the Volumes tab.
    A list of volumes displays.
  2. Select the volume that you want to tune, and click the Volume Options tab from the Details pane.
    The Volume Options tab displays a list of options set for the volume.
  3. Click Add to set an option. The Add Option dialog box displays. Select the Option Key from the drop down list and enter the option value.
    Add Option

    Figure 7.10. Add Option


  4. Click OK.
    The option is set and displays in the Volume Options tab.
Result
You have tuned the options for your storage volume.

7.8.8. Editing Volume Options

Summary
You have tuned your volume by adding options to it. You can change the options for your storage volume.

Procedure 7.20. Editing Volume Options

  1. Click the Volumes tab.
    A list of volumes displays.
  2. Select the volume that you want to edit, and click the Volume Options tab from the Details pane.
    The Volume Options tab displays a list of options set for the volume.
  3. Select the option you wish to edit. Click Edit. The Edit Option dialog box displays. Enter a new value for the option.
  4. Click OK.
    The edited option displays in the Volume Options tab.
result
You've changed the options on your volume.

7.8.9. Reset Volume Options

Summary
You can reset options to revert them to their default values.
  1. Click the Volumes tab.
    A list of volumes displays.
  2. Select the volume and click the Volume Options tab from the Details pane.
    The Volume Options tab displays a list of options set for the volume.
  3. Select the option you wish to reset. Click Reset. A dialog box displays, prompting to confirm the reset option.
  4. Click OK.
    The selected option is reset.

Note

You can reset all volume options by clicking Reset All button. A dialog box displays, prompting to confirm the reset option. Click OK. All volume options are reset for the selected volume.
Result
You've reset volume options to default.

7.8.10. Removing Bricks from a Volume

Summary
You can shrink volumes, as needed, while the cluster is online and available. For example, you might need to remove a brick that has become inaccessible in a distributed volume due to hardware or network failure.

Procedure 7.21. Removing Bricks from a Volume

  1. On the Volumes tab on the navigation pane, select the volume from which you wish to remove bricks.
  2. Click the Bricks tab from the Details pane.
  3. Select the bricks you wish to remove. Click Remove Bricks.
  4. A window opens, prompting to confirm the deletion. Click OK to confirm.
Result
The bricks are removed from the volume.

7.8.11. Stopping Red Hat Storage Volumes

Summary
After a volume has been started, it can be stopped.

Procedure 7.22. Stopping Volumes

  1. In the Volumes tab, select the volume to be stopped.
    You can select multiple volumes to stop by using Shift or Ctrl key.
  2. Click Stop.
Result
The volume status changes is Down.

7.8.12. Deleting Red Hat Storage Volumes

Summary
You can delete a volume or multiple volumes from your cluster.
  1. In the Volumes tab, select the volume to be deleted.
  2. Click Remove. A dialog box displays, prompting to confirm the deletion. Click OK.
Result
The volume is removed from the cluster.

7.9. Storage and Permissions

7.9.1. Managing system permissions for a storage domain

The system administrator, as the SuperUser, manages all aspects of the Administration Portal. More specific administrative roles can be assigned to other users. These restricted administrator roles are useful for empowering a user with certain administrative privileges that limit them to a specific resource: a DataCenterAdmin role has administrator privileges only for the assigned data center, a StorageAdmin has administrator privileges only for the assigned storage domain, and so forth.
A storage administrator is a system administration role for a specific storage domain only. This is useful in data centers with multiple storage domains, where each storage domain requires a system administrator. Use the Configure button in the header bar to assign a storage administrator for all storage domains in the environment.
The storage domain administrator role permits the following actions:
  • Edit the configuration of the storage domain;
  • Move the storage domain into maintenance mode; and
  • Remove the storage domain.

Note

You can only assign roles and permissions to existing users.
You can also change the system administrator of a storage domain by removing the existing system administrator and adding the new system administrator.

7.9.2. Storage Administrator Roles Explained

Storage Domain Permission Roles
The table below describes the administrator roles and privileges applicable to storage domain administration.

Table 7.3. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization System Administrator Roles

Role Privileges Notes
StorageAdmin Storage Administrator Can create, delete, configure and manage a specific storage domain.
GlusterAdmin Gluster Storage Administrator Can create, delete, configure and manage Gluster storage volumes.

7.9.3. Assigning an Administrator or User Role to a Resource

Summary
Assign administrator or user roles to resources to allow users to access or manage that resource.

Procedure 7.23. Assigning a Role to a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Permissions tab of the details pane to list the assigned users, the user's role, and the inherited permissions for the selected resource.
  3. Click Add to open the Add Permission to User window.
  4. Enter the name or user name of an existing user into the Search text box and click Go. Select a user from the resulting list of possible matches.
  5. Select a role from the Role to Assign: drop-down menu.
  6. Click OK to assign the role and close the window.
Result
You have assigned a role to a user; the user now has the inherited permissions of that role enabled for that resource.

7.9.4. Removing an Administrator or User Role from a Resource

Summary
Remove an administrator or user role from a resource; the user loses the inherited permissions associated with the role for that resource.

Procedure 7.24. Removing a Role from a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Permissions tab of the details pane to list the assigned users, the user's role, and the inherited permissions for the selected resource.
  3. Select the user to remove from the resource.
  4. Click Remove. The Remove Permission window opens to confirm permissions removal.
  5. Click OK to remove the user role.
Result
You have removed the user's role, and the associated permissions, from the resource.

Chapter 8. Virtual Machines

8.1. Introduction to Virtual Machines

A virtual machine is a software implementation of a computer. The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment enables you to create virtual desktops and virtual servers.
Virtual machines consolidate computing tasks and workloads. In traditional computing environments, workloads usually run on individually administered and upgraded servers. Virtual machines reduce the amount of hardware and administration required to run the same computing tasks and workloads.

8.2. Supported Virtual Machine Operating Systems

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization presently supports the virtualization of these guest operating systems:
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 (32 bit and 64 bit)
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 (32 bit and 64 bit)
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 (32 bit and 64 bit)
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 (32 bit and 64 bit)
  • Windows XP Service Pack 3 and newer (32 bit only)
  • Windows 7 (32 bit and 64 bit)
  • Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 2 and newer (32 bit and 64 bit)
  • Windows Server 2008 (32 bit and 64 bit)
  • Windows Server 2008 R2 (64 bit only)

8.3. Virtual Machine Performance Parameters

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization virtual machines can support the following parameters:

Table 8.1. Supported virtual machine parameters

Parameter Number Note
Virtualized CPUs 160 per virtual machine
Virtualized RAM 2TB For a 64 bit virtual machine
Virtualized RAM 4GB per 32 bit virtual machine. Note, the virtual machine may not register the entire 4GB. The amount of RAM that the virtual machine recognizes is limited by its operating system.
Virtualized storage devices 8 per virtual machine
Virtualized network interface controllers 8 per virtual machine
Virtualized PCI devices 32 per virtual machine

8.4. Creating Virtual Machines

8.4.1. Creating a New Virtual Machine from an Existing Template

Summary
You can use a template to create a virtual machine which has already been configured with virtual disks, network interfaces, an operating system, and applications.
A virtual machine created from a template depends on the template. You cannot remove a template from the environment if there are still virtual machines that were created from it. Cloning a virtual machine from a template removes the dependency on the template.

Procedure 8.1. Creating a New Virtual Machine from an Existing Template

  1. Click the Virtual Machines resource tab to list all the virtual machines in the results list.
    The icon to the right of the virtual machine name indicates whether it is a virtual server, a virtual machine, or a part of a virtual machine pool.
    Virtual Machine List

    Figure 8.1. Virtual Machine List


  2. Click the New Server button to open the New Server Virtual Machine window, or the New Desktop button to open the New Desktop Virtual Machine window.
  3. Select the Data Center and Host Cluster on which the desktop is to run. Select an existing template from the Based on Template drop-down menu.
    New Virtual Machine Window

    Figure 8.2. New Virtual Machine Window


  4. Enter a suitable Name and Description, and accept the default values inherited from the template. You can change the rest of the fields if needed.
  5. Click OK.
Result
The virtual machine is created and displayed in the Virtual Machines list. You can now log on to your virtual machine and begin using it, or assign users to it.

8.4.2. Creating a New Virtual Machine from a Blank Template

Summary
You can create a virtual machine using a blank template and configure all of its settings.

Procedure 8.2. Creating a New Virtual Machine from a Blank Template

  1. Click the Virtual Machines resource tab to list all the virtual machines in the results list.
    The icon to the right of the virtual machine name indicates whether it is a virtual server, a virtual machine, or a part of a virtual machine pool.
  2. Click the New Server button to open the New Server Virtual Machine window, or the New Desktop button to open the New Desktop Virtual Machine window.
  3. On the General tab, you only need to fill in the Name and Operating System fields. You can accept the default settings for other fields, or change them if required.
  4. Alternatively, click the Initial Run, Console, Host, Resource Allocation, Boot Options, and Custom Properties tabs in turn to define options for your virtual machine.
  5. Click OK to create the virtual machine and close the window.
  6. The New Virtual Machine - Guide Me window opens. Use the Guide Me buttons to complete configuration or click Configure Later to close the window.
Result
The new virtual machine is created and displays in the list of virtual machines with a status of Down. Before you can use this virtual machine, add at least one network interface and one virtual disk, and install an operating system.

8.4.3. Explanation of Settings and Controls in the New Virtual Machine and Edit Virtual Machine Windows

8.4.3.1. Virtual Machine General Settings Explained

These settings apply to adding or editing new virtual machines.
The Virtual Machine: General settings table details the information required on the General tab of the New or Edit windows.

Table 8.2. Virtual Machine: General Settings

Field Name
Description
Data Center
The data center to which the virtual machine is attached.
Host Cluster
The name of the host cluster to which the virtual machine is attached. It can be hosted on any physical machine in the cluster depending on the policy rules.
Quota (Server only)
A policy that limits the virtual machine from using more CPU, memory, or storage resources than are allocated.
Name
The name of virtual machine. Names must not contain any spaces, and must contain at least one character from A-Z. The maximum length of a virtual machine name is 15 characters.
Description
A meaningful description of the new virtual machine.
Based on Template
Templates can be used to create a virtual machines from existing models. This field is set to Blank by default, which enables creating a virtual machine from scratch.
Memory Size
The amount of memory assigned to the virtual machine. When allocating memory, consider the processing and storage needs of the applications that are intended to run on the virtual machine.
Maximum guest memory is constrained by the selected guest architecture and the cluster compatibility level.
Total Virtual CPUs
The processing power allocated to the virtual machine as CPU Cores. Do not assign more cores to a virtual machine than are present on the physical host.
Cores per Virtual Socket
The number of cores assigned to each virtual socket.
Virtual Sockets
The number of CPU sockets for the virtual machine. Do not assign more sockets to a virtual machine than are present on the physical host.
Operating System
The operating system. Valid values include a range of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Windows variants.
Stateless (Desktop only)
Select this check box if the virtual machine is to run in stateless mode. The stateless mode is used primarily for desktop virtual machines. Running a stateless desktop or server creates a new COW layer on the virtual machine hard disk image where new and changed data is stored. Shutting down the stateless virtual machine deletes the new COW layer, returning the virtual machine to its original state. This type of virtual machine is useful when creating virtual machines that need to be used for a short time, or by temporary staff.

8.4.3.2. Virtual Machine Initial Run Settings Explained

These settings apply to adding or editing new virtual machines.
The Virtual Machine: Initial Run settings table details the information required on the Initial Run tab of the New or Edit windows.

Table 8.3. Virtual Machine: Initial Run Settings

Field Name
Description
General - Time Zone
The time zone in which the virtual machine is to run. It is not necessarily the time zone for the physical host on which the virtual machine is running.
Windows - Domain
The domain in which the virtual machine is to run. This option is only available when Windows is selected as the operating system on the Virtual Machine - General tab.

8.4.3.3. Virtual Machine Console Settings Explained

These settings apply to adding or editing new virtual machines.
The Virtual Machine: Console settings table details the information required on the Console tab of the New or Edit windows.

Table 8.4. Virtual Machine: Console Settings

Field Name
Description
Protocol
Defines the display protocol to be used. SPICE is the recommended protocol for Linux and Windows virtual machines. Optionally, select VNC for Linux virtual machines. A VNC client is required to connect to a virtual machine using the VNC protocol.
USB Support
Defines whether USB devices can be used on the virtual machine. This option is only available for virtual machines using the SPICE protocol. Select either:
  • Disabled - Does not allow USB redirection from the client machine to the virtual machine.
  • Legacy - Enables the SPICE USB redirection policy used in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.0. This option can only be used on Windows virtual machines, and will not be supported in future versions of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization.
  • Native - Enables native KVM/ SPICE USB redirection for Linux and Windows virtual machines. Virtual machines do not require any in-guest agents or drivers for native USB. This option can only be used if the virtual machine's cluster compatibility version is set to 3.1.
Monitors
The number of monitors for the virtual machine. This option is only available for virtual desktops using the SPICE display protocol. You can choose 1, 2 or 4.
Disable strict user checking
Click the Advanced Parameters arrow and select the checkbox to use this option. With this option selected, the virtual machine does not need to be rebooted when a different user connects to it.
By default, strict checking is enabled so that only one user can connect to the console of a virtual machine. No other user is able to open a console to the same virtual machine until it has been rebooted. The exception is that a superuser can connect at any time and replace a existing connection. When a superuser has connected, no normal user can connect again until the VM is re-booted.
Disable strict checking with caution, because you can expose the previous user's session to the new user

8.4.3.4. Virtual Machine Host Settings Explained

These settings apply to adding or editing new virtual machines.
The Virtual Machine: Host settings table details the information required on the Host tab of the New or Edit windows.

Table 8.5. Virtual Machine: Host Settings

Field Name
Description
Run On
Defines the host on which the virtual machine is to run. Select either:
  • Any Host in Cluster - The virtual machine can start and run on any available host in the cluster.
  • Specific - The virtual machine must run on a particular host in the cluster. Select the specific host from the drop-down menu of available hosts.
Run/Migration Options
Defines options to run and migrate the virtual machine. If the options here are not used, the virtual machine will run or migrate according to its cluster's policy.
  • Run VM on the selected host (no migration allowed) - Starts and runs the virtual machine only on the selected host. Select this option if your virtual machine does not need to be highly available.
  • Allow VM migration only upon Administrator specific request (system will not trigger automatic migration of this VM) - Prevents the virtual machine from being migrated mid-operation. For example in cases of host overload or fencing, the virtual machine will remain on the host on which it was started.
CPU Pinning topology
Enables the virtual machine's virtual CPU (vCPU) to run on a specific physical CPU (pCPU) in a specific host. This option is not supported if the virtual machine's cluster compatibility version is set to 3.0. The syntax of CPU pinning is v#p[_v#p], for example:
  • 0#0 - Pins vCPU 0 to pCPU 0.
  • 0#0_1#3 - Pins vCPU 0 to pCPU 0, and pins vCPU 1 to pCPU 3.
  • 1#1-4,^2 - Pins vCPU 1 to one of the pCPUs in the range of 1 to 4, excluding pCPU 2.

8.4.3.5. Virtual Machine High Availability Settings Explained

These settings apply to adding or editing new server virtual machines.
The Virtual Machine: High Availability settings table details the information required on the High Availability tab of the New or Edit windows.

Table 8.6. Virtual Machine: High Availability Settings

Field Name
Description
Highly Available
Select this check box if the virtual machine is to be highly available. For example, in cases of host maintenance or failure, the virtual machine will be automatically re-run on another host. If the host is manually shut down by the system administrator, the virtual machine is not automatically moved to another host.
Priority for Run/Migration queue
Sets the priority level for the virtual machine to be migrated or restarted on another host.

8.4.3.6. Virtual Machine Resource Allocation Settings Explained

These settings apply to adding or editing new virtual machines.
The Virtual Machine: Resource Allocation settings table details the information required on the Resource Allocation tab of the New or Edit windows.

Table 8.7. Virtual Machine: Resource Allocation Settings

Field Name
Description
Memory Allocation
The amount of physical memory guaranteed for this virtual machine.
Storage Allocation
The Template Provisioning option is only available when the virtual machine is created from a template. Select either:
  • Thin - Provides optimized usage of storage capacity. Disk space is allocated only as it is required.
  • Clone - Optimized for the speed of guest read and write operations. All disk space requested in the template is allocated at the time of the clone operation.

8.4.3.7. Virtual Machine Boot Options Settings Explained

These settings apply to adding or editing new virtual machines.
The Virtual Machine: Boot Options settings table details the information required on the Boot Options tab of the New or Edit windows.

Table 8.8. Virtual Machine: Boot Options Settings

Field Name
Description
First Device
After installing a new virtual machine, the new virtual machine must go into Boot mode before powering up. Select the first device that the virtual machine must try to boot:
  • Hard Disk
  • CD-ROM
  • Network (PXE)
Second Device
Select the second device for the virtual machine to use to boot if the first device is not available. The first device selected in the previous option does not appear in the options.
Attach CD
If you have selected CD-ROM as a boot device, tick this check box and select a CD-ROM image from the drop-down menu. The images must be available in the ISO domain.
Boot Options
Defines the virtual machine's boot sequence, running options, and source images for installing the operating system and required drivers.
  • Attach Floppy - Attaches a floppy disk image to the virtual machine. Use this option to install Windows drivers. The floppy disk image must reside in the ISO domain.
  • Attach CD - Attaches an ISO image to the virtual machine. Use this option to install the virtual machine's operating system and applications. The CD image must reside in the ISO domain.
  • Boot Sequence - Determines the order in which the boot devices are used to boot the virtual machine. Select either Hard Disk, CD-ROM or Network, and use the arrow keys to move the option up or down.
  • Run Stateless - Deletes all changes to the virtual machine upon shutdown.
  • Start in Pause Mode - Starts then pauses the virtual machine to enable connection to the console, suitable for virtual machines in remote locations.
Linux Boot Options
The following options boot a Linux kernel directly instead of through the BIOS bootloader.
  • kernel path - A fully-qualified path to a kernel image to boot the virtual machine. The kernel image must be stored on either the ISO domain (path name in the format of iso://path-to-image) or on the host's local storage domain (path name in the format of /data/images).
  • initrd path - A fully-qualified path to a ramdisk image to be used with the previously specified kernel. The ramdisk image must be stored on the ISO domain (path name in the format of iso://path-to-image) or on the host's local storage domain (path name in the format of /data/images).
  • kernel params - Kernel command line parameter strings to be used with the defined kernel on boot.

8.4.3.8. Virtual Machine Custom Properties Settings Explained

These settings apply to adding or editing new virtual machines.
The Virtual Machine: Custom Properties settings table details the information required on the Custom Properties tab of the New or Edit windows.

Table 8.9. Virtual Machine: Custom Properties Settings

Field Name
Description
sap_agent
Enables SAP monitoring on the virtual machine. Set to true or false.
sndbuf
Enter the size of the buffer for sending the virtual machine's outgoing data over the socket. Default value is 0.
vhost
Enter the name of the virtual host on which this virtual machine should run. The name can contain any combination of letters and numbers.
viodiskcache
Caching mode for the virtio disk. writethrough writes data to the cache and the disk in parallel, writeback does not copy modifications from the cache to the disk, and none disables caching.
memory
smartcard

Warning

Increasing the value of the sndbuf custom property results in increased occurances of communication failure between hosts and unresponsive virtual machines.

8.4.4. Creating a Cloned Virtual Machine from an Existing Template

Summary
Cloning a virtual machine from a template is like creating a virtual machine from a template. A cloned virtual machine inherits all the settings from the original virtual machine on which its template is based. A clone does not depend on the template it was created from after it has been created.

Procedure 8.3. Creating a Cloned Virtual Machine from an Existing Template

  1. Click the Virtual Machines resource tab to list all the virtual machines in the results list.
  2. Click the New Server button to open the New Server Virtual Machine window, or the New Desktop button to open the New Desktop Virtual Machine window.
  3. Select an existing template from the Based on Template drop-down menu.
  4. Enter a Name and appropriate Description, and accept the default values inherited from the template in the rest of the fields. You can change them if needed.
  5. Click the Resource Allocation tab. The template you selected is displayed on the Template Provisioning field. Select Clone.
    Provisioning - Clone

    Figure 8.3. Provisioning - Clone


    Select the disk provisioning mode in the Allocation field. This selection impacts both the speed of the clone operation and the amount of disk space it requires.
    • Selecting Thin Provision results in a faster clone operation and provides optimized usage of storage capacity. Disk space is allocated only as it is required. This is the default selection.
    • Selecting Preallocated results in a slower clone operation and is optimized for the speed of guest read and write operations. All disk space requested in the template is allocated at the time of the clone operation.
  6. Select the Target storage domain for the virtual machine.
  7. Click OK.

    Note

    It may take some time for the virtual machine to be created because a new copy of the template's disk. During this time, the status of the virtual machine displays as Image Locked, followed by Down.
Result
The virtual machine is created and displayed in the Virtual Machines list. You can now log on to your virtual machine and begin using it, or assign users to it.

8.4.5. Completing the Configuration of a Virtual Machine by Defining Network Interfaces and Hard Disks

Summary
Before you can use your newly created virtual machine, the Guide Me window prompts you to configure at least one network interface and one virtual disk for the virtual machine.

Procedure 8.4. Completing the Configuration of a Virtual Machine by Defining Network Interfaces and Hard Disks

  1. On the New Virtual Machine - Guide Me window, click the Configure Network Interfaces button to open the New Network Interface window. You can accept the default values or change them as necessary.
    New Network Interface window

    Figure 8.4. New Network Interface window


    Enter the Name of the network interface.
  2. Use the drop-down menus to select the Network and the Type of network interface for the new virtual machine.

    Note

    The options on the Network and Type fields are populated by the networks available to the cluster, and the NICs available to the virtual machine.
  3. If applicable, select the Port Mirroring and Specify custom MAC address check boxes.
  4. Select the Activate check box to immediately activate the network interface.
  5. Click OK to close the New Network Interface window and open the New Virtual Machine - Guide Me window.
  6. Click the Configure Virtual Disk button to open the New Virtual Disk window.
  7. Add either an Internal virtual disk or an External LUN to the virtual machine.
    New Virtual Disk Window

    Figure 8.5. New Virtual Disk Window


  8. Click OK to close the New Virtual Disk window. The New Virtual Machine - Guide Me window opens with changed context. There is no further mandatory configuration.
  9. Click Configure Later to close the window.
Result
You have added a network interface and a virtual disk to your virtual machine.

8.4.6. Installing a Guest Operating System onto a Virtual Machine

Summary
An operating system has to be installed onto a virtual machine that is created from a blank template. You can install a new operating system on any virtual machine.

Procedure 8.5. Installing an operating system onto a virtual machine

  1. Select the created virtual machine. It has a status of Down.
  2. Click the Run Once button to open the Run Virtual Machine window.
    Run Virtual Machine Window

    Figure 8.6. Run Virtual Machine Window


  3. Click the Boot Options tab to define the boot sequence and source images for installing the operating system.
  4. Click the Linux Boot Options tab to define additional boot options specific to Linux virtual machines.
  5. Click the Initial Run tab to join the virtual machine to a domain on the initial run.
  6. Click the Display Protocol tab and select a suitable protocol to connect to the virtual machine. SPICE is the recommended protocol.
  7. Click the Custom Properties tab to enter additional running options for virtual machines.
  8. Click OK.
Result
You have installed an operating system onto your virtual machine. You can now log in and begin using your virtual machine, or assign users to it.

8.4.7. Virtual Machine Run Once Settings Explained

The Run Once window defines one-off boot options for a virtual machine. For persistent boot options, use the Boot Options tab in the New Virtual Machine window. The following table details the information required for the Run Once window.

Table 8.10. Virtual Machine: Run Once Settings

Field Name
Description
Boot Options
Defines the virtual machine's boot sequence, running options, and source images for installing the operating system and required drivers.
  • Attach Floppy - Attaches a floppy disk image to the virtual machine. Use this option to install Windows drivers. The floppy disk image must reside in the ISO domain.
  • Attach CD - Attaches an ISO image to the virtual machine. Use this option to install the virtual machine's operating system and applications. The CD image must reside in the ISO domain.
  • Boot Sequence - Determines the order in which the boot devices are used to boot the virtual machine. Select either Hard Disk, CD-ROM or Network, and use the arrow keys to move the option up or down.
  • Run Stateless - Deletes all changes to the virtual machine upon shutdown.
  • Start in Pause Mode - Starts then pauses the virtual machine to enable connection to the console, suitable for virtual machines in remote locations.
Linux Boot Options
The following options boot a Linux kernel directly instead of through the BIOS bootloader.
  • kernel path - A fully-qualified path to a kernel image to boot the virtual machine. The kernel image must be stored on either the ISO domain (path name in the format of iso://path-to-image) or on the host's local storage domain (path name in the format of /data/images).
  • initrd path - A fully-qualified path to a ramdisk image to be used with the previously specified kernel. The ramdisk image must be stored on the ISO domain (path name in the format of iso://path-to-image) or on the host's local storage domain (path name in the format of /data/images).
  • kernel params - Kernel command line parameter strings to be used with the defined kernel on boot.
Initial Run
Defines the virtual machine's domain and user log in credentials.
  • Domain - The domain in which the virtual machine runs.
  • Alternate Credentials - By default you will log in to the virtual machine with the same credentials you use for the Administration Portal. To log in as a different user, enter a suitable User Name and Password. This user must exist in the same domain as the virtual machine.
Display Protocol
Defines the protocol to connect to virtual machines.
  • VNC - Can be used for Linux virtual machines. Requires a VNC client to connect to a virtual machine using VNC.
  • SPICE - Recommended protocol for Linux and Windows virtual machines.
Custom Properties
Additional VDSM options for running virtual machines.
  • sap_agent - Enables SAP monitoring on the virtual machine. Set to true or false.
  • sndbuf - Enter the size of the buffer for sending the virtual machine's outgoing data over the socket.
  • vhost - Enter the name of the virtual host on which this virtual machine should run. The name can contain any combination of letters and numbers.
  • viodiskcache - Caching mode for the virtio disk. writethrough writes data to the cache and the disk in parallel, writeback does not copy modifications from the cache to the disk, and none disables caching.

8.5. Using Virtual Machines

8.5.1. SPICE

The SPICE protocol facilitates graphical connections to virtual machines. The SPICE protocol allows:
  • video at more than 30 frames per second
  • bi-directional audio (for soft-phones/IP phones)
  • bi-directional video (for video telephony/video conferencing)
  • connection to multiple monitors with a single virtual machine
  • USB redirection from the client's USB port into the virtual machine

8.5.2. Powering on a Virtual Machine

Summary
You can start a virtual machine from the Administration Portal.

Procedure 8.6. Powering on a Virtual Machine

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select a virtual machine in the results list with a status of Down.
  2. Click the icon.
    Alternatively, right-click and select Run.
Result
The Status of the virtual machine changes to Up. The display protocol of the selected virtual machine is displayed. If the virtual machine has the rhev-guest-agent installed, its IP address is also displayed.

8.5.3. Installing SPICE Plugins

Summary
The SPICE protocol allows you to log in to virtual machines from the Administration Portal. To use the SPICE protocol, install a SPICE plugin on the client machine which you are using to access the Administration Portal.

Procedure 8.7. Installing SPICE Plugins

    • If you are using Mozilla Firefox on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux client, manually install the spice-xpi plugin. Open a terminal and run the following command as root:
      yum install spice-xpi
      
      Restart Mozilla Firefox for changes to take effect.
    • If you are using Internet Explorer on a Windows client, you will be prompted to install the SPICE ActiveX component the first time you open a SPICE connection to a virtual machine. Follow the prompts to complete the installation.
Result
You have succesfully installed the SPICE plugin. You can use SPICE to connect to your virtual machines.

8.5.4. Logging in to a Virtual Machine

Summary
The default protocol for graphical connections to virtual machines is SPICE. You can log in to virtual machines using the SPICE protocol from the Administration Portal. An external VNC client is required to log in to virtual machines using the VNC protocol.

Procedure 8.8. Logging in to a virtual machine

  1. On the Virtual Machines resource tab, select a running virtual machine.
  2. Click the Console button or right-click the virtual machine and select Console from the menu.
    Connection Icon on the Virtual Machine Menu

    Figure 8.7. Connection Icon on the Virtual Machine Menu


    • If the virtual machine's display protocol is set to SPICE, a console window to the virtual machine opens. Log in to the virtual machine's guest operating system.
    • If the virtual machine's display protocol is set to VNC, a window containing connection details including the IP address, port number and password required opens. Use the details with your VNC client to connect to the virtual machine.
Result
You have connected to a virtual machine from the Administration Portal using SPICE or a VNC client.

8.6. Shutting Down or Pausing Virtual Machines

8.6.1. Shutting Down or Pausing Virtual Machines

Virtual machine should be shut down from within. However, occasionally there is a need to shut down the virtual machine from the Administration Portal.
The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization platform provides for an orderly shutdown if the guest tools are installed on the virtual machine. Shutdown of virtual machines should be planned after due consideration, preferably at times that will least impact users.
All users should be logged off of a Windows virtual machine before shutting them down. If any users are still logged in, the virtual machine remains on with a Powering Off status in the Administration Portal. The virtual machine requires manual intervention to shut it down completely because the following Windows message is displayed on the virtual machine:
Other people are logged on to this computer. Shutting down Windows might cause them to lose data. Do you want to continue shutting down?
If a virtual machine cannot be properly shut down, since, for example, the operating system is not responsive, you might need to force a shutdown, which is equivalent to pulling out the power cord of a physical machine.

Warning

Exercise extreme caution when forcing shutdown of a virtual machine, as data loss may occur.
Pausing a virtual machine puts it into Hibernate mode, where the virtual machine state is preserved. Applications running in RAM are written to the hard drive and CPU usage is zero.

8.6.2. Shutting Down a Virtual Machine

Summary
If your virtual machine has the rhev-agent installed or acpi support, you can shut it down from the Administration Portal.

Procedure 8.9. Shutting Down a Virtual Machine

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select a running virtual machine in the results list.
  2. Click the Shut down ( ) button.
    Alternatively, right-click the virtual machine and select Shut down.
Result
The Status of the virtual machine changes to Down.

8.6.3. Pausing a Virtual Machine

Summary
If your virtual machine has the rhev-agent installed or acpi support, you can pause it from the Administration Portal. This is equal to setting it on Hibernate mode.

Procedure 8.10. Pausing a virtual machine

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select a running virtual machine in the results list.
  2. Click the Suspend ( ) button.
    Alternatively, right-click the virtual machine and select Suspend
Result
The Status of the virtual machine changes to Paused.

8.7. Managing Virtual Machines

8.7.1. Editing a Resource

Summary
Edit the properties of a resource. The Edit window is identical to the New window, except that some fields are disabled.

Procedure 8.11. Editing a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click Edit to open the Edit window.
  3. Change the necessary properties and click OK.
Result
The new properties are saved to the resource. The Edit window will not close if a property field is invalid.

8.7.2. Removing a Virtual Machine

Summary
When you no longer require a virtual machine, remove it from the data center. Shut down the virtual machine before removing it.

Procedure 8.12. Removing a virtual machine

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select a virtual machine in the results list.
  2. Shut down the virtual machine. The Remove button is only enabled for a virtual machine that has a status of Down.
  3. Click Remove to open the Remove Virtual Machine(s) confirmation window.
    Click OK to remove the virtual machine and close the window.
Result
The virtual machine is removed from the environment and no longer displays on the Virtual Machines resource tab.

8.7.3. Adding and Editing Virtual Machine Disks

Summary
It is possible to add disks to virtual machines. You can add new disks, or previously created floating disks to a virtual machine. This allows you to provide additional space to and share disks between virtual machines. You can also edit disks to change some of their details.
An Internal disk is the default type of disk. You can also add an External(Direct Lun) disk. Internal disk creation is managed entirely by the Manager; external disks require externally prepared targets that already exist. Existing disks are either floating disks or shareable disks attached to virtual machines.

Procedure 8.13. Adding Disks to Virtual Machines

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select a virtual machine in the results list.
  2. Click the Disks tab in the details pane to display a list of virtual disks currently associated with the virtual machine.
  3. Click Add to open the Add Virtual Disk window.
    Add Virtual Disk Window

    Figure 8.8. Add Virtual Disk Window


  4. Use the appropriate radio buttons to switch between Internal and the External (Direct Lun) disks.
  5. Select the Attach Disk check box to choose an existing disk from the list and select the Activate check box.
    Alternatively, enter the Size, Alias, and Description of a new disk and use the drop-down menus and check boxes to configure the disk.
  6. Click OK to add the disk and close the window.
Result
Your new disk is listed in the Virtual Disks tab in the details pane of the virtual machine.

8.7.4. Adding and Editing Virtual Machine Network Interfaces

Summary
You can add network interfaces to virtual machines. Doing so allows you to put your virtual machine on multiple logical networks. You can also edit a virtual machine's network interface to change some network interface details. This procedure can be performed on virtual machines that are running, but some actions can be performed only on virtual machines that are not running.

Procedure 8.14. Adding network interfaces to virtual machines

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select a virtual machine in the results list.
  2. Select the Network Interfaces tab in the details pane to display a list of network interfaces that are currently associated with the virtual machine.
  3. Click New to open the New Network Interface window.
    New Network Interface window

    Figure 8.9. New Network Interface window


  4. Enter the Name of the network interface.
  5. Use the drop-down menus to select the Network and the Type of network interface for the new network interface.

    Note

    The options on the Network and Type fields are populated by the networks available to the cluster, and the NICs available to the virtual machine.
  6. If applicable, select the Port Mirroring and Specify custom MAC address check boxes.
  7. Select the Activate check box to immediately activate the network interface.
  8. Click OK to close the New Network Interface window.
Result
Your new network interface is listed in the Network Interfaces tab in the details pane of the virtual machine.

8.7.5. Explanation of Settings in the Virtual Machine Network Interface Window

These settings apply when you are adding or editing a virtual machine network interface. If you have more than one network interface attached to a virtual machine, you can put the virtual machine on more than one logical network.

Table 8.11. Add a network interface to a virtual machine entries

Field Name
Description
Name
The name of the network interface. This text field has a 21-character limit and must be a unique name with any combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, hyphens, and underscores.
Network
Logical network that the network interface is placed on. By default, all network interfaces are put on the rhevm management network.
Type
The virtual interface the network interface presents to virtual machines. VirtIO is faster but requires VirtIO drivers. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and higher includes VirtIO drivers. Windows does not include VirtIO drivers, but they can be installed from the guest tools ISO or virtual floppy disk. rtl8139 and e1000 device drivers are included in most operating systems.
Port Mirroring
A security feature that allows all network traffic going to or leaving from virtual machines on a given logical network and host to be copied (mirrored) to the network interface. If the host also uses the network, then traffic going to or leaving from the host is also copied.
Port mirroring only works on network interfaces with IPv4 IP addresses.
Specify custom MAC address
Choose this option to set a custom MAC address. The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager automatically generates a MAC address that is unique to the environment to identify the network interface. Having two devices with the same MAC address online in the same network causes networking conflicts.
Activate
Makes the network interface available to the virtual machine.

8.7.6. Hot Plugging Virtual Machine Disks and Network Interfaces

Summary
You can hot plug virtual machine disks and network interfaces. Hot plugging means enabling or disabling devices while a virtual machine is running.

Procedure 8.15. Hot plugging virtual machine disks and network interfaces

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select a running virtual machine in the results list.
  2. Select either the Virtual Disks or Network Interfaces tab from the details pane of the virtual machine.
  3. Select the device you would like to hot plug.
  4. Click the Activate or Deactivate button.
Result
You have enabled or disabled a virtual device.

8.7.7. Removing Disks and Network Interfaces from Virtual Machines

Summary
You can remove network interfaces and virtual hard disks from virtual machines. If you remove a disk from a virtual machine, the contents of the disk are permanently lost.
This procedure is not the same as hot plugging. You can only remove virtual hardware that is Deactivated.

Procedure 8.16. Removing disks and network interfaces from virtual machines

  1. Select the virtual machine with virtual hardware you'd like to remove.
  2. Select the relevant tab, either Network Interfaces or Disks, from the virtual machine details pane.
  3. Select the disk or network interface you'd like to remove. To remove it, you must have first Deactivated it.
  4. Click the Remove button. Click OK in the confirmation window. If you are removing a disk, select the Remove Permanently option to completely remove it from the environment. If you don't select this option, for example because the disk is a shared disk, it will remain in the Disks resource tab.
Result
The disk or network interface is no longer attached to the virtual machine.

8.8. Virtual Machines and Permissions

8.8.1. Managing System Permissions for a Virtual Machine

The system administrator, as the SuperUser, manages all aspects of the Administration Portal. More specific administrative roles can be assigned to other users. These restricted administrator roles are useful for empowering a user with certain administrative privileges that limit them to a specific resource: a DataCenterAdmin role has administrator privileges only for the assigned data center, a ClusterAdmin has administrator privileges only for the assigned cluster, and so forth.
A UserVmManager is a system administration role for virtual machines in a data center. This role can be applied to specific virtual machines, to a data center, or to the whole virtualized environment; this is useful to allow different users to manage certain virtual resources.
The user virtual machine administrator role permits the following actions:
  • Create, edit, and remove virtual machines; and
  • Run, suspend, shutdown, and stop virtual machines.

Note

You can only assign roles and permissions to existing users.
Many end-users are concerned solely with the virtual machine resources of the virtualized environment. As a result, Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization provides several user roles which enable the user to manage virtual machines specifically, but not other resources in the data center.

8.8.2. Virtual Machines Administrator Roles Explained

Virtual Machine Administrator Permission Roles
The table below describes the administrator roles and privileges applicable to virtual machine administration.

Table 8.12. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization System Administrator Roles

Role Privileges Notes
DataCenterAdmin Data Center Administrator Can use, create, delete, manage all virtual machines within a specific data center.
ClusterAdmin Cluster Administrator Can use, create, delete, manage all virtual machines within a specific cluster.

8.8.3. Virtual Machine User Roles Explained

Virtual Machine User Permission Roles
The table below describes the user roles and privileges applicable to virtual machine users. These roles allow access to the User Portal for managing and accessing virtual machines, but they do not confer any permissions for the Administration Portal.

Table 8.13. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization System User Roles

Role Privileges Notes
UserRole Can access and use virtual machines and pools. Can log in to the User Portal and use virtual machines and pools.
PowerUserRole Can create and manage virtual machines and templates. Apply this role to a user for the whole environment with the Configure window, or for specific data centers or clusters. For example, if a PowerUserRole is applied on a data center level, the PowerUser can create virtual machines and templates in the data center.
UserVmManager System administrator of a virtual machine. Can manage virtual machines, create and use snapshots, and migrate virtual machines. A user who creates a virtual machine in the User Portal is automatically assigned the UserVmManager role on the machine.
UserTemplateBasedVm Limited privileges to only use Templates. Level of privilege to create a virtual machine by means of a template.
VmCreator Can create virtual machines in the User Portal. This role is not applied to a specific virtual machine; apply this role to a user for the whole environment with the Configure window. When applying this role to a cluster, you must also apply the DiskCreator role on an entire data center, or on specific storage domains.

Note

In Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.0, the PowerUserRole only granted permissions for virtual machines which are directly assigned to the PowerUser, or virtual machines created by the PowerUser. Now, the VmCreator role provides privileges previously conferred by the PowerUserRole. The PowerUserRole can now be applied on a system-wide level, or on specific data centers or clusters, and grants permissions to all virtual machines and templates within the system or specific resource. Having a PowerUserRole is equivalent to having the VmCreator, DiskCreator, and TemplateCreator roles.

8.8.4. Assigning an Administrator or User Role to a Resource

Summary
Assign administrator or user roles to resources to allow users to access or manage that resource.

Procedure 8.17. Assigning a Role to a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Permissions tab of the details pane to list the assigned users, the user's role, and the inherited permissions for the selected resource.
  3. Click Add to open the Add Permission to User window.
  4. Enter the name or user name of an existing user into the Search text box and click Go. Select a user from the resulting list of possible matches.
  5. Select a role from the Role to Assign: drop-down menu.
  6. Click OK to assign the role and close the window.
Result
You have assigned a role to a user; the user now has the inherited permissions of that role enabled for that resource.

8.8.5. Removing an Administrator or User Role from a Resource

Summary
Remove an administrator or user role from a resource; the user loses the inherited permissions associated with the role for that resource.

Procedure 8.18. Removing a Role from a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Permissions tab of the details pane to list the assigned users, the user's role, and the inherited permissions for the selected resource.
  3. Select the user to remove from the resource.
  4. Click Remove. The Remove Permission window opens to confirm permissions removal.
  5. Click OK to remove the user role.
Result
You have removed the user's role, and the associated permissions, from the resource.

8.9. Backing Up and Restoring Virtual Machines with Snapshots

8.9.1. Creating a Snapshot of a Virtual Machine

Summary
A snapshot is a view of a virtual machine's operating system and applications at a given point in time. Take a snapshot of a virtual machine before you make a change to it that may have unintended consequences. You can use a snapshot to return a virtual machine to a previous state.

Procedure 8.19. Creating a snapshot of a virtual machine

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select a virtual machine in the results list.
  2. Select the Snapshots tab in the details pane.
  3. Click Create in the left side-pane of the details pane to open the Create Snapshot window.
    The Virtual Machines Details Pane with Snapshots tab

    Figure 8.10. The Virtual Machines Details Pane with Snapshots tab


  4. Enter a description for the snapshot.
  5. Click OK to create the snapshot and close the window.
    New Snapshot in the Details Pane

    Figure 8.11. New Snapshot in the Details Pane


Result
The virtual machine's operating system and applications are stored in a snapshot that can be previewed or restored. The snapshot is created with a status of Locked, which changes to Ok. When you click on the snapshot, its details are shown on the General, Disks, Network Interfaces, and Installed Applications tabs in the right side-pane of the details pane.

8.9.2. Using a Snapshot to Restore a Virtual Machine

Summary
A snapshot can be used to restore a virtual machine to its previous state.

Procedure 8.20. Using a snapshot to restore a virtual machine

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the virtual machine in the results list. Ensure the status is Powered Down.
  2. Click the Snapshots tab in the details pane to list the available snapshots.
  3. Select a snapshot to restore in the left side-pane. The snapshot details display in the right side-pane.
  4. Click Preview to preview the snapshot. The status of the virtual machine briefly changes to Image Locked before returning to Down.
    Preview snapshot

    Figure 8.12. Preview snapshot


  5. Start the virtual machine and it will run with the disk image of the snapshot.
  6. Click Commit to permanently restore the virtual machine to the condition of the snapshot. Any subsequent snapshots are erased.
    Alternatively, click the Undo button to deactivate the snapshot and return the virtual machine to its previous state.
Result
The virtual machine is restored to its state at the time of the snapshot, or returned to its state before the preview of the snapshot.

8.9.3. Creating a Virtual Machine from a Snapshot

Summary
You have created a snapshot from a virtual machine. Now you can use that snapshot to create another virtual machine.

Procedure 8.21. Creating a virtual machine from a snapshot

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the virtual machine in the results list. Ensure the status is Powered Down.
  2. Click the Snapshots tab in the details pane to list the available snapshots for the virtual machines.
  3. Select a snapshot in the list displayed and click Clone to open the Clone VM from Snapshot window.
  4. Enter the Name and Description of the virtual machine to be created.
    Clone a Virtual Machine from a Snapshot

    Figure 8.13. Clone a Virtual Machine from a Snapshot


  5. Click OK to create the virtual machine and close the window.
Result
After a short time, the cloned virtual machine appears in the Virtual Machines tab in the navigation pane. It appears in the navigation pane with a status of Image Locked. The virtual machine will remain in this state until Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization completes the creation of the virtual machine. A virtual machine with a preallocated 20GB hard drive takes about fifteen minutes to create. Sparsely-allocated virtual disks take less time to create than do preallocated virtual disks.
When the virtual machine is ready to use, its status changes from Image Locked to Down in the Virtual Machines tab in the navigation pane.

8.9.4. Deleting a Snapshot

Summary
Delete a snapshot and permanently remove it from the virtualized environment.

Procedure 8.22. Deleting a Snapshot

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select a virtual machine in the results list.
  2. Click the Snapshots tab in the details pane to list available snapshots for the virtual machine.
    Snapshot List

    Figure 8.14. Snapshot List


  3. Select the snapshot to delete.
  4. Click Delete to open the Delete Snapshot confirmation window.
  5. Click OK to delete the snapshot and close the window.
Result
You have removed a virtual machine snapshot. Removing a snapshot does not affect the virtual machine.

8.10. Importing and Exporting Virtual Machines

8.10.1. Exporting and Importing Virtual Machines

A virtual machine or a template can be moved between data centers in the same environment, or to a different Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment. The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager allows you to import and export virtual machines (and templates) stored in Open Virtual Machine Format (OVF). This feature can be used in multiple ways:
  • Moving virtual resources between Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environments.
  • Move virtual machines and templates between data centers in a single Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment.
  • Backing up virtual machines and templates.
There are three stages of exporting and importing virtual resources:
  • First you export your virtual machines and templates to an export domain.
  • Second, you detach the export domain from one data center, and attach it to another. You can attach it to a different data center in the same Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment, or attach it to a data center in a separate Red Hat Enterprise Virtualizaiton environment that is managed by another installation of the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.
  • Third, you import your virtual machines and template into the data center you attached the expord domain to.
A virtual machine must be stopped before it can be moved across data centers. If the virtual machine was created using a template, the template must exist in the destination data center for the virtual machine to work, or the virtual machine must be exported with the Collapse Snapshots option selected.

8.10.2. Overview of the Export-Import Process

The export domain allows you to move virtual machines and templates between Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environments.
Exporting and importing resources requires that an active export domain be attached to the data center. An export domain is a temporary storage area containing two directories per exported virtual resource. One directory consists of all the OVF (Open Virtualization Format) files pertaining to the virtual machine. The other holds the virtual resource's disk image, or images.
You can also import virtual machines from other virtualization providers, for example, Xen, VMware or Windows virtual machines, using the V2V feature. V2V converts virtual machines and places them in the export domain.
For more information on V2V, see the Red Hat Enterprise Linux V2V Guide.

Note

An export domain can be active in only one data center. This means that the export domain can be attached to either the source data center or the destination data center.
Exporting virtual resources across data centers requires some preparation. Make sure that:
  • an export domain exists, and is attached to the source data center.
  • the virtual machine is shut down.
  • if the virtual machine was created from a template, the template resides on the destination data center, or is exported alongside the virtual machine.
When the virtual machine, or machines, have been exported to the export domain, you can import them into the destination data center. If the destination data center is within the same Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment, delete the originals from the source data center after exporting them to the export domain.

8.10.3. Performing an Export-Import of Virtual Resources

Summary
This procedure provides a graphical overview of the steps required to import a virtual resource to its destination.

Procedure 8.23. Performing an export-import of virtual resources

  1. Attach the export domain to the source data center.
    Attach Export Domain

    Figure 8.15. Attach Export Domain


  2. Export the virtual resource to the export domain.
    Export the Virtual Resource

    Figure 8.16. Export the Virtual Resource


  3. Detach the export domain from the source data center.
    Detach Export Domain

    Figure 8.17. Detach Export Domain


  4. Attach the export domain to the destination Data center.
    Attach the Export Domain

    Figure 8.18. Attach the Export Domain


  5. Import the virtual resource into the destination data center.
    Import the virtual resource

    Figure 8.19. Import the virtual resource


Result
Your virtual resource is exported to the destination data center.

8.10.4. Exporting a Virtual Machine to the Export Domain

Summary
Export a virtual machine to the export domain so that it can be imported into a different data center. Before you begin, the export domain must be attached to the data center that contains the virtual machine to be exported.

Procedure 8.24. Exporting a Virtual Machine to the Export Domain

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select a virtual machine in the results list. Ensure the virtual machine has a status of Down.
  2. Click Export to open the Export Virtual Machine window.
  3. Select the Force Override check box to override existing images of the virtual machine on the export domain.
    Select the Collapse Snapshots check box to create a single export volume per disk. Selecting this option will remove snapshot restore points and include the template in a template-based virtual machine. This removes any dependencies a virtual machine has on a template.
  4. Click OK to export the virtual machine and close the window.
Result
The export of the virtual machine begins, this can take some time. The virtual machine displays in the Virtual Machines list with an Image Locked status as it is exported. This can take some time. Use the Events tab to view the progress.
Export Virtual Machine

Figure 8.20. Export Virtual Machine


When complete, the virtual machine has been exported to the export domain and displays on the VM Import tab of the export domain.

8.10.5. Importing a Virtual Machine into the Destination Data Center

Summary
You have a virtual machine on an export domain. Before the virtual machine can be imported to a new data center, the export domain must be attached to the destination data center.

Procedure 8.25. Importing a Virtual Machine into the Destination Data Center

  1. Use the Storage resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the export domain in the results list. The export domain must have a status of Active
  2. Select the VM Import tab in the details pane to list the available virtual machines to import.
  3. Select one or more virtual machines to import and click Import to open the Import Virtual Machine(s) window.
    Import Virtual Machine

    Figure 8.21. Import Virtual Machine


  4. Use the drop-down menus to select the Default Storage Domain, Cluster, and Cluster Quota in the data center.
  5. Select the Collapse All Snapshots check box to remove snapshot restore points and include templates in template-based virtual machines.
  6. Click OK to import the virtual machines.
    The Import Conflict window opens if the virtual machine exists in the virtualized environment.
    Import Conflict Window

    Figure 8.22. Import Conflict Window


  7. Choose one of the following radio buttons:
    • Don't import
    • Clone and enter a unique name for the virutal machine in the New Name: field.
    Or select the Apply to all check box to import all duplicated virtual machines with the same suffix.
  8. Click OK to import the virtual machines and close the window.
Result
You have imported the virtual machine to the destination data center. This may take some time to complete.

8.11. Migrating Virtual Machines Between Hosts

8.11.1. What is Live Migration?

Live migration provides the ability to move a running virtual machine between physical hosts with no interruption to service.
Live migration is transparent to the end user: the virtual machine remains powered on and user applications continue to run while the virtual machine is relocated to a new physical host.

8.11.2. Live Migration Prerequisites

Live migration is used to seamlessly move virtual machines to support a number of common maintenance tasks. Ensure that your Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment is correctly configured to support live migration well in advance of using it.
At a minimum, for successful live migration of virtual machines to be possible:
  • The source and destination host must both be members of the same cluster, ensuring CPU compatibility between them.
  • The source and destination host must have a status of Up.
  • The source and destination host must have access to the same virtual networks and VLANs.
  • The source and destination host must have access to the data storage domain on which the virtual machine resides.
  • There must be enough CPU capacity on the destination host to support the virtual machine's requirements.
  • There must be enough RAM on the destination host that is not in use to support the virtual machine's requirements.
In addition, for best performance, the storage and management networks should be split to avoid network saturation. Virtual machine migration involves transferring large amounts of data between hosts.
Live migration is performed using the management network. Each live migration event is limited to a maximum transfer speed of 30 MBps, and the number of concurrent migrations supported is also limited by default. Despite these measures, concurrent migrations have the potential to saturate the management network. It is recommended that separate logical networks are created for storage, display, and virtual machine data to minimize the risk of network saturation.

8.11.3. Automatic Virtual Machine Migration

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager automatically initiates live migration of all virtual machines running on a host when the host is moved into maintenance mode. The destination host for each virtual machine is assessed as the virtual machine is migrated, in order to spread the load across the cluster.
The Manager automatically initiates live migration of virtual machines in order to maintain load balancing or power saving levels in line with cluster policy. While no cluster policy is defined by default, it is recommended that you specify the cluster policy which best suits the needs of your environment. You can also disable automatic, or even manual, live migration of specific virtual machines where required.

8.11.4. Preventing Automatic Migration of a Virtual Machine

Summary
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager allows you to disable automatic migration of virtual machines. You can also disable manual migration of virtual machines by setting the virtual machine to run only on a specific host.
The ability to disable automatic migration and require a virtual machine to run on a particular host is useful when using application high availability products, such as Red Hat High Availability or Cluster Suite.

Procedure 8.26. Preventing automatic migration of a virtual machine

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select a virtual machine or virtual server in the results list.
  2. Click Edit to open the Edit Desktop Virtual Machine or Edit Server Virtual Machine window.
    Edit Desktop Virtual Machine Window

    Figure 8.23. Edit Desktop Virtual Machine Window


  3. Click the Host tab.
  4. Use the Run On radio buttons to designate the virtual machine to run on Any Host in Cluster or a Specific host. If applicable, select a specific host from the drop-down menu.

    Warning

    Explicitly assigning a virtual machine to a specific host and disabling migration is mutually exclusive with Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization high availability. Virtual machines that are assigned to a specific host can only be made highly available using third party high availability products like Red Hat High Availability.
  5. Select the appropriate check boxes to affect the Run/Migration Options.
  6. Enter any relevant CPU Pinning topology commands in the text field.
  7. Click OK to save the changes and close the window.
Result
You have changed the migration settings for the virtual machine.

8.11.5. Manually Migrating Virtual Machines

Summary
A running virtual machine can be migrated to any host within its designated host cluster. This is especially useful if the load on a particular host is too high. When bringing a server down for maintenance, migration is triggered automatically, so manual migration is not required. Migration of virtual machines does not cause any service interruption.

Procedure 8.27. Manually migrating virtual machines

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select a running virtual machine in the results list.
    Click Migrate to open the Migrate Virtual Machine(s) window.
  2. Use the radio buttons to select whether to Select Host Automatically or to Select Destination Host, specifying the host using the drop-down menu.

    Note

    Virtual Machines migrate within their designated host cluster. When the Select Host Automatically option is selected, the system determines the host to which the virtual is migrated according to the load balancing and power management rules set up in the cluster policy.
  3. Click OK to commence migration and close the window.
Result
The virtual machine is migrated. Once migration is complete the Host column will update to display the host the virtual machine has been migrated to.

8.11.6. Setting Migration Priority

Summary
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager queues concurrent requests for migration of virtual machines off of a given host. Every minute the load balancing process runs. Hosts already involved in a migration event are not included in the migration cycle until their migration event has completed. When there is a migration request in the queue and available hosts in the cluster to action it, a migration event is triggered in line with the load balancing policy for the cluster.
It is possible to influence the ordering of the migration queue, for example setting mission critical virtual machines to migrate before others. The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager allows you to set the priority of each virtual machine to facilitate this. Virtual machines migrations will be ordered by priority, those virtual machines with the highest priority will be migrated first.

Note

You can only set the migration priority for virtual servers. You can not set migration priority for virtual desktops.

Procedure 8.28. Setting Migration Priority

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select a virtual server in the results list.
  2. Click Edit to open the Edit Server Virtual Machine window.
  3. Select the High Availability tab.
  4. Use the radio buttons to set the Priority for Run/Migrate Queue of the virtual machine to one of Low, Medium, or High.
  5. Click OK to save changes and close the window.
Result
The virtual machine's migration priority has been modified.

8.11.7. Cancelling ongoing virtual machine migrations

Summary
A virtual machine migration is taking longer than you expected. You'd like to be sure where all virtual machines are running before you make any changes to your environment.

Procedure 8.29. Cancelling ongoing virtual machine migrations

  1. Select the migrating virtual machine. It is displayed in the Virtual Machines resource tab with a status of Migrating from.
  2. Click the Cancel Migration button at the top of the results list. Alternatively, right-click on the virtual machine and select Cancel Migration from the context menu.
Result
The virtual machine status returns from Migrating from status to Up status.

8.12. Improving Uptime with Virtual Machine High Availability

8.12.1. Why Use High Availability?

High availability is recommended for virtual machines running critical workloads.
High availability can ensure that virtual machines are restarted in the following scenarios:
  • When a host becomes non-operational due to hardware failure.
  • When a host is put into maintenance mode for scheduled downtime.
  • When a host becomes unavailable because it has lost communication with an external storage resource.
  • When a virtual machine fails due to an operating system crash.

8.12.2. What is High Availability?

High availability means that a virtual machine will be automatically restarted if its process is interrupted. This happens if the virtual machine is terminated by methods other than powering off from within the guest or sending the shutdown command from the Manager. When these events occur, the highly available virtual machine is automatically restarted, either on its original host or another host in the cluster.
High availability is possible because the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager constantly monitors the hosts and storage, and automatically detects hardware failure. If host failure is detected, any virtual machine configured to be highly available is automatically restarted on another host in the cluster. In addition, all virtual machines are monitored, so if the virtual machine's operating system crashes, a signal is sent to automatically restart the virtual machine.
With high availability, interruption to service is minimal because virtual machines are restarted within seconds with no user intervention required. High availability keeps your resources balanced by restarting guests on a host with low current resource utilization, or based on any workload balancing or power saving policies that you configure. This ensures that there is sufficient capacity to restart virtual machines at all times.

8.12.3. High Availability Considerations

A highly available host requires a power management device and its fencing parameters configured. In addition, for a virtual machine to be highly available when its host becomes non-operational, it needs to be started on another available host in the cluster. To enable the migration of highly available virtual machines:
  • Power management must be configured for the hosts running the highly available virtual machines.
  • The host running the highly available virtual machine must be part of a cluster which has other available hosts.
  • The destination host must be running.
  • The source and destination host must have access to the data domain on which the virtual machine resides.
  • The source and destination host must have access to the same virtual networks and VLANs.
  • There must be enough CPUs on the destination host that are not in use to support the virtual machine's requirements.
  • There must be enough RAM on the destination host that is not in use to support the virtual machine's requirements.

8.12.4. Configuring a Highly Available Virtual Machine

Summary
High availability must be configured individually for each virtual server.

Note

You can only set high availability for virtual servers. You can not set high availability for virtual desktops.

Procedure 8.30. Configuring a Highly Available Virtual Machine

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select a virtual server in the results list.
  2. Click Edit to open the Edit Server Virtual Machine window.
  3. Click the High Availability tab.
    Set virtual machine high availability

    Figure 8.24. Set virtual machine high availability


  4. Select the Highly Available check box to enable high availability for the virtual server.
  5. Use the radio buttons to set the Priority for Run/Migrate Queue of the virtual machine to one of Low, Medium, or High. When migration is triggered, a queue is created in which the high priority virtual machines are migrated first. If a cluster is running low on resources, only the high priority virtual machines are migrated.
  6. Click OK to save changes and close the window.
Result
You have configured high availability for a virtual machine. You can check if a virtual machine is highly available when you select it and click on its General tab in the details pane.

8.13. Other Virtual Machine Tasks

8.13.1. Enabling SAP monitoring for a virtual machine from the Administration Portal

Summary
Enable SAP monitoring on a virtual machine to be recognized by SAP monitoring systems.

Procedure 8.31. Enabling SAP monitoring for a Virtual Machine from the Administration Portal

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select a virtual machine with a status of Down in the results list.
  2. Click Edit button to open the Edit Virtual Machine window.
  3. Select the Custom Properties tab.
    Enable SAP

    Figure 8.25. Enable SAP


  4. Use the drop-down menu to select sap_agent. Ensure the secondary drop-down menu is set to True.
    If previous properties have been set, select the plus sign to add a new property rule and select sap_agent.
  5. Click OK to save changes and close the window.
Result
You have enabled SAP monitoring for your virtual machine.

8.13.2. Configuring Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.4 or Higher Virtual Machines to use SPICE

8.13.2.1. Using SPICE on virtual machines running versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux released prior to 5.4

SPICE is a remote display protocol designed for virtual environments, which enables you to view a virtualized desktop or server. SPICE delivers a high quality user experience, keeps CPU consumption low, and supports high quality video streaming.
Using SPICE on a Linux machine significantly improves the movement of the mouse cursor on the console of the virtual machine. To use SPICE, the X-Windows system requires additional qxl drivers. The qxl drivers are provided with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.4 and newer. Older versions are not supported. Installing SPICE on a virtual machine running Red Hat Enterprise Linux significantly improves the performance of the graphical user interface.

Note

Typically, this is most useful for virtual machines where the user requires the use of the graphical user interface. System administrators who are creating virtual servers may prefer not to configure SPICE if their use of the graphical user interface is minimal.

8.13.2.2. Installing qxl drivers on virtual machines

Summary
This procedure installs qxl drivers on virtual machines running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.4 or higher.

Procedure 8.32. Installing qxl drivers on a virtual machine

  1. Log in to a Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machine.
  2. Open a terminal.
  3. Run the following command as root:
    # yum install xorg-x11-drv-qxl
Result
The qxl drivers have been installed and must now be configured.

8.13.2.3. Configuring qxl drivers on virtual machines

Summary
You can configure qxl drivers using either a graphical interface or the command line. Perform only one of the following procedures.

Procedure 8.33. Configuring qxl drivers in GNOME

  1. Click System.
  2. Click Administration.
  3. Click Display.
  4. Click the Hardware tab.
  5. Click Video Cards Configure.
  6. Select qxl and click OK.
  7. Restart X-Windows by logging out of the virtual machine and logging back in.

Procedure 8.34. Configuring qxl drivers on the command line:

  1. Back up /etc/X11/xorg.conf:
    # cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.$$.backup
  2. Make the following change to the Device section of /etc/X11/xorg.conf:
    Section 	"Device"
    Identifier	"Videocard0"
    Driver		"qxl"
    Endsection
    
Result
You have configured qxl drivers to enable your virtual machine to use SPICE.

8.13.2.4. Configuring a virtual machine's tablet and mouse to use SPICE

Summary
Edit the /etc/X11/xorg.conf file to enable SPICE for your virtual machine's tablet devices.

Procedure 8.35. Configuring a virtual machine's tablet and mouse to use SPICE

  1. Verify that the tablet device is available on your guest:
    # /sbin/lsusb -v | grep 'QEMU USB Tablet'
    If there is no output from the command, do not continue configuring the tablet.
  2. Back up /etc/X11/xorg.conf by running this command:
    # cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.$$.backup
  3. Make the following changes to /etc/X11/xorg.conf:
    Section "ServerLayout"
    Identifier     "single head configuration"
    Screen      0  "Screen0" 0 0
    InputDevice    "Keyboard0" "CoreKeyboard"
    InputDevice    "Tablet" "SendCoreEvents"
    InputDevice    "Mouse" "CorePointer"
    EndSection
    							 
    Section "InputDevice"
    Identifier  "Mouse"
    Driver      "void"
    #Option      "Device" "/dev/input/mice"
    #Option      "Emulate3Buttons" "yes"
    EndSection
    							 
    Section "InputDevice"
    Identifier  "Tablet"
    Driver      "evdev"
    Option      "Device" "/dev/input/event2"
    Option "CorePointer" "true"
    EndSection
    
  4. Log out and log back into the virtual machine to restart X-Windows.
Result
You have enabled tablet devices on your virtual machine to use SPICE.

8.13.3. KVM virtual machine timing management

Virtualization poses various challenges for virtual machine time keeping. Virtual machines which use the Time Stamp Counter (TSC) as a clock source may suffer timing issues as some CPUs do not have a constant Time Stamp Counter. Virtual machines running without accurate timekeeping can have serious affects on some networked applications as your virtual machine will run faster or slower than the actual time.
KVM works around this issue by providing virtual machines with a para-virtualized clock. The KVM pvclock provides a stable source of timing for KVM guests that support it.
Presently, only Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.4 and higher virtual machines fully support the para-virtualized clock.
Virtual machines can have several problems caused by inaccurate clocks and counters:
  • Clocks can fall out of synchronization with the actual time which invalidates sessions and affects networks.
  • Virtual machines with slower clocks may have issues migrating.
These problems exist on other virtualization platforms and timing should always be tested.

Important

The Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon should be running on the host and the virtual machines. Enable the ntpd service:
# service ntpd start
Add the ntpd service to the default startup sequence:
# chkconfig ntpd on
Using the ntpd service should minimize the affects of clock skew in all cases.
The NTP servers you are trying to use must be operational and accessible to your hosts and virtual machines.
Determining if your CPU has the constant Time Stamp Counter
Your CPU has a constant Time Stamp Counter if the constant_tsc flag is present. To determine if your CPU has the constant_tsc flag run the following command:
$ cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep constant_tsc
If any output is given your CPU has the constant_tsc bit. If no output is given follow the instructions below.
Configuring hosts without a constant Time Stamp Counter
Systems without constant time stamp counters require additional configuration. Power management features interfere with accurate time keeping and must be disabled for virtual machines to accurately keep time with KVM.

Important

These instructions are for AMD revision F cpus only.
If the CPU lacks the constant_tsc bit, disable all power management features (BZ#513138). Each system has several timers it uses to keep time. The TSC is not stable on the host, which is sometimes caused by cpufreq changes, deep C state, or migration to a host with a faster TSC. Deep C sleep states can stop the TSC. To prevent the kernel using deep C states append "processor.max_cstate=1" to the kernel boot options in the grub.conf file on the host:
term Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.18-159.el5)
        root (hd0,0)
	kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.18-159.el5 ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet processor.max_cstate=1
Disable cpufreq (only necessary on hosts without the constant_tsc) by editing the /etc/sysconfig/cpuspeed configuration file and change the MIN_SPEED and MAX_SPEED variables to the highest frequency available. Valid limits can be found in the /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu*/cpufreq/scaling_available_frequencies files.
Using the rhevm-config tool to recive alerts when hosts drift out of sync.
You can use the rhevm-config tool to configure alerts when your hosts drift out of sync.
There are 2 relevant parameters for time drift on hosts: EnableHostTimeDrift and HostTimeDriftInSec. EnableHostTimeDrift, with a default value of false, can be enabled to recieve alert notifications of host time drift. The HostTimeDriftInSec parameter is used to set the maximum allowable drift before alerts start being sent.
Alerts are sent once per hour per host.
Using the para-virtualized clock with Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machines
For certain Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machines, additional kernel parameters are required. These parameters can be set by appending them to the end of the /kernel line in the /boot/grub/grub.conf file of the virtual machine.

Note

The process of configuring kernel parameters can be automated using the ktune package
The ktune package provides an interactive Bourne shell script, fix_clock_drift.sh. When run as the superuser, this script inspects various system parameters to determine if the virtual machine on which it is run is susceptible to clock drift under load. If so, it then creates a new grub.conf.kvm file in the /boot/grub/ directory. This file contains a kernel boot line with additional kernel parameters that allow the kernel to account for and prevent significant clock drift on the KVM virtual machine. After running fix_clock_drift.sh as the superuser, and once the script has created the grub.conf.kvm file, then the virtual machine's current grub.conf file should be backed up manually by the system administrator, the new grub.conf.kvm file should be manually inspected to ensure that it is identical to grub.conf with the exception of the additional boot line parameters, the grub.conf.kvm file should finally be renamed grub.conf, and the virtual machine should be rebooted.
The table below lists versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and the parameters required for virtual machines on systems without a constant Time Stamp Counter.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Additional virtual machine kernel parameters
5.4 AMD64/Intel 64 with the para-virtualized clock Additional parameters are not required
5.4 AMD64/Intel 64 without the para-virtualized clock notsc lpj=n
5.4 x86 with the para-virtualized clock Additional parameters are not required
5.4 x86 without the para-virtualized clock clocksource=acpi_pm lpj=n
5.3 AMD64/Intel 64 notsc
5.3 x86 clocksource=acpi_pm
4.8 AMD64/Intel 64 notsc
4.8 x86 clock=pmtmr
3.9 AMD64/Intel 64 Additional parameters are not required
3.9 x86 Additional parameters are not required
Using the Real-Time Clock with Windows virtual machines
Windows uses the both the Real-Time Clock (RTC) and the Time Stamp Counter (TSC). For Windows virtual machines the Real-Time Clock can be used instead of the TSC for all time sources which resolves virtual machine timing issues.
To enable the Real-Time Clock for the PMTIMER clocksource (the PMTIMER usually uses the TSC) add the following line to the Windows boot settings. Windows boot settings are stored in the boot.ini file. Add the following line to the boot.ini file:
/use pmtimer
For more information on Windows boot settings and the pmtimer option, refer to Available switch options for the Windows XP and the Windows Server 2003 Boot.ini files.

Chapter 9. Templates

9.1. Introduction to Templates

A template is a copy of a virtual machine for the purpose of reproducing the virtual machine. Virtual machines created from a template are identical to the model virtual machine from which the template was taken, eliminating the need to configure each one individually.
When creating a template, select a model virtual machine that is general enough for mass production. A virtual machine that is too specific to a particular user or group is not practical for use as a template.

Note

Before a Windows template is ready for application, you must first run Sysprep (or a similar tool) to seal the virtual machine and remove "specific" personalization. Failure to do so will cause conflicts when running multiple virtual machines from an unsealed Windows template. In general, templates of Linux virtual machines do not require sealing.

9.2. Template Tasks

9.2.1. Creating a Template from an Existing Virtual Machine

Summary
Create a template from an existing virtual machine to use as the blueprint for additional virtual machines.

Procedure 9.1. Creating a Template from an Existing Virtual Machine

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the virtual machine in the results list.
  2. Ensure that the virtual machine is powered down and has a status of Down.

    Note

    Take a snapshot of the virtual machine at this stage if you wish to use the virtual machine (as a virtual machine) after using it to create a template.
  3. Click Make Template to open the New Template window.
    New Template Window

    Figure 9.1. New Template Window


  4. Enter the Name and Description of the template.
  5. Select the Host Cluster and storage Target from the drop-down menus; by default, these are set the same as the source virtual machine.
  6. The Allow all users to access this Template check box is selected by default, which makes it public.
  7. Click OK to create the template. The virtual machine displays a status of Image Locked while the template is being created; this may take up to an hour, depending on the virtual machine disk image size and your storage hardware.
Result
The template is created and added to the Templates tab. You can now create new virtual machines from the template.

9.2.2. Explanation of Settings and Controls in the New Template Window

The table below describes the settings for the New Template window.

Table 9.1. New and Edit Template Properties

Field
Description/Action
Name
The name of the template. This text field has a 40-character limit and must be a unique name with any combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, hyphens, and underscores.
Description
The description of the template. This field is recommended but not mandatory.
Host Cluster
The cluster with which the template will be associated. This is the same as the original virtual machines by default; you can select from any cluster in the data center.
Target
The storage domain with which the template will be associated. This is the same as the original virtual machines by default; you can select from any storage domain in the data center.
Allow all users to access the Template
A public template can be accessed by all users.
A private template can only be accessed by TemplateAdmin and the SuperUser.

9.2.3. Editing a Resource

Summary
Edit the properties of a resource. The Edit window is identical to the New window, except that some fields are disabled.

Procedure 9.2. Editing a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click Edit to open the Edit window.
  3. Change the necessary properties and click OK.
Result
The new properties are saved to the resource. The Edit window will not close if a property field is invalid.

9.2.4. Deleting a Template

Summary
Delete a template from your Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment.

Warning

If you have used a template to create a virtual machine, make sure that you do not delete the template as the virtual machine needs it to continue running.

Procedure 9.3. Deleting a Template

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the template in the results list.
  2. Click Remove to open the Remove Template(s) window.
  3. Click OK to remove the template.
Result
You have removed the template.

9.2.5. Exporting Templates

9.2.5.1. Migrating Templates to the Export Domain

Summary
Export templates into the export domain for migration.

Procedure 9.4. Exporting Individual Templates to the Export Domain

  1. Use the Templates resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the template in the results list.
  2. Click Export to open the Export Template window.

    Note

    Select the Force Override check box to replace any earlier version of the template on the export domain.
  3. Click OK to begin exporting the template; this may take up to an hour, depending on the virtual machine disk image size and your storage hardware.
    Template Import

    Figure 9.2. Template Import


  4. Repeat these steps until the export domain contains all the templates to migrate before you start the import process.
    Use the Storage resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the export domain in the results list and click the Template Import tab in the details pane to view all exported templates in the export domain.
Result
The templates have been exported to the export domain.

9.2.6. Importing Templates

9.2.6.1. Importing a Template into a Data Center

Summary
Import templates from a newly attached export domain.

Procedure 9.5. Importing a Template into a Data Center

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the newly attached export domain in the results list.
  2. Select the Template Import tab of the details pane to display the templates that migrated across with the export domain.
  3. Select a template and click Restore to open the Import Template(s) window.
    Import Templates

    Figure 9.3. Import Templates


  4. Select the templates to import.
  5. Use the drop-down menus to select the Destination Cluster and Storage domain. Alter the Suffix if applicable.
    Alternatively, clear the Clone All Templates check box.
  6. Click OK to import templates and open a notification window. Click Close to close the notification window.
    Imported Template

    Figure 9.4. Imported Template


Result
The template is imported into the destination data center. This can take up to an hour, depending on your storage hardware. You can view the import progress in the Events tab.
Once the importing process is complete, the templates will be visible in the Templates resource tab. The templates can create new virtual machines, or run existing imported virtual machines based on that template.

9.3. Sealing Templates in Preparation for Deployment

9.3.1. Sealing a Linux Virtual Machine for Deployment as a Template

Summary
Generalize (seal) a Linux virtual machine before making it into a template. This prevents conflicts between virtual machines deployed from the template.

Procedure 9.6. Sealing a Linux Virtual Machine

  1. Log in to the virtual machine. Flag the system for re-configuration by running the following command as root:
    # touch /.unconfigured
  2. Remove ssh host keys. Run:
    # rm -rf /etc/ssh/ssh_host_*
  3. Set HOSTNAME=localhost.localdomain in /etc/sysconfig/network
  4. Remove /etc/udev/rules.d/70-*. Run:
    # rm -rf /etc/udev/rules.d/70-*
  5. Remove the HWADDR= line from /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth*.
  6. Optionally delete all the logs from /var/log and build logs from /root.
  7. Shut down the virtual machine. Run:
    # poweroff
Result
The virtual machine is sealed and can be made into a template. You can deploy Linux virtual machines from this template without experiencing configuration file conflicts.

9.3.2. Sealing a Windows Template

9.3.2.1. Considerations when Sealing a Windows Template with Sysprep

A template created for Windows virtual machines must be generalized (sealed) before being used to deploy virtual machines. This ensures that machine-specific settings are not reproduced in the template.
The Sysprep tool is used to seal Windows templates before use.

Important

Do not reboot the virtual machine during this process.
Before starting the Sysprep process, verify the following settings are configured:
  • The Windows Sysprep parameters have been correctly defined.
    If not, click Edit VM and enter the required information in the Operating System and Domain fields.
  • The correct product key has been entered in the rhevm-config configuration tool.
    If not, run the configuration tool on the Manager as the root user, and enter the required information. The configuration keys that you need to set are ProductKey and SysPrepPath. For example, the Windows 7 configuration value is ProductKeyWindow7 and SysPrepWindows7Path. Set these values with this command:
      # rhevm-config --set ProductKeyWindow7=<validproductkey> --cver=general

9.3.2.2. Sealing a Windows XP Template

Summary
Seal a Windows XP template using the Sysprep tool before using the template to deploy virtual machines.

Note

You can also use the procedure above to seal a Windows 2003 template. The Windows 2003 Sysprep tool is available at http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?id=14830.

Procedure 9.7. Sealing a Windows XP Template

  1. Download sysprep to the virtual machine to be used as a template.
    The Windows XP Sysprep tool is available at http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?id=11282
  2. Create a new directory: c:\sysprep.
  3. Open the deploy.cab file and add its contents to c:\sysprep.
  4. Execute sysprep.exe from within the folder and click OK on the welcome message to display the Sysprep tool.
  5. Select the following check boxes:
    • Don't reset grace period for activation
    • Use Mini-Setup
  6. Ensure that the shutdown mode is set to Shut down and click Reseal.
  7. Acknowledge the pop-up window to complete the sealing process; the virtual machine shuts down automatically upon completion.
Result
The Windows XP template is sealed and ready for deploying virtual machines.

9.3.2.3. Sealing a Windows 7 or Windows 2008 Template

Summary
Seal a Windows 7 or Windows 2008 template before using the template to deploy virtual machines.

Procedure 9.8. Sealing a Windows 7 or Windows 2008 Template

  1. In the virtual machine to be used as a template, open a command line terminal and type regedit.
  2. The Registry Editor window opens. On the left pane, expand HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMSETUP.
  3. On the main window, right-click to add a new string value using NewString Value.
  4. Right-click on the file and select Modify to open the Edit String window.
  5. Enter the following information in the provided fields:
    • Value name: UnattendFile
    • Value data: a:\sysprep.inf
  6. Launch Sysprep from C:\Windows\System32\sysprep\sysprep.exe.
  7. Enter the following information into the Sysprep tool:
    • Under System Cleanup Action, select Enter System Out-of-Box-Experience (OOBE).
    • Select the Generalize check box if you need to change the computer's system identification number (SID).
    • Under Shutdown Options, select Shutdown.
    Click OK to complete the sealing process; the virtual machine shuts down automatically upon completion.
Result
The Windows 7 or Windows 2008 template is sealed and ready for deploying virtual machines.

9.4. Templates and Permissions

9.4.1. Managing System Permissions for a Template

The system administrator, as the SuperUser, manages all aspects of the Administration Portal. More specific administrative roles can be assigned to other users. These restricted administrator roles are useful for empowering a user with certain administrative privileges that limit them to a specific resource: a DataCenterAdmin role has administrator privileges only for the assigned data center, a ClusterAdmin has administrator privileges only for the assigned cluster, and so forth.
A template administrator is a system administration role for templates in a data center. This role can be applied to specific virtual machines, to a data center, or to the whole virtualized environment; this is useful to allow different users to manage certain virtual resources.
The template administrator role permits the following actions:
  • Create, edit, export, and remove associated templates; and
  • import and export templates.

Note

You can only assign roles and permissions to existing users.

9.4.2. Template Administrator Roles Explained

Template Administrator Permission Roles
The table below describes the administrator roles and privileges applicable to template administration.

Table 9.2. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization System Administrator Roles

Role Privileges Notes
TemplateAdmin Can perform all operations on templates. Has privileges to create, delete and configure templates' storage domains and network details, and to move templates between domains.

9.4.3. Template User Roles Explained

Template User Permission Roles
The table below describes the user roles and privileges applicable to using and administrating templates in the User Portal.

Table 9.3. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Template User Roles

Role Privileges Notes
TemplateCreator Can create, edit, manage and remove virtual machine templates within assigned resources. The TemplateCreator role is not applied to a specific template; apply this role to a user for the whole environment with the Configure window. Alternatively apply this role for specific data centers, clusters, or storage domains.
TemplateOwner Can edit and delete the template, assign and manage user permissions for the template. The TemplateOwner role is automatically assigned to the user who creates a template.
UserTemplateBasedVm Can use the template to create virtual machines. Cannot edit template properties.

9.4.4. Assigning an Administrator or User Role to a Resource

Summary
Assign administrator or user roles to resources to allow users to access or manage that resource.

Procedure 9.9. Assigning a Role to a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Permissions tab of the details pane to list the assigned users, the user's role, and the inherited permissions for the selected resource.
  3. Click Add to open the Add Permission to User window.
  4. Enter the name or user name of an existing user into the Search text box and click Go. Select a user from the resulting list of possible matches.
  5. Select a role from the Role to Assign: drop-down menu.
  6. Click OK to assign the role and close the window.
Result
You have assigned a role to a user; the user now has the inherited permissions of that role enabled for that resource.

9.4.5. Removing an Administrator or User Role from a Resource

Summary
Remove an administrator or user role from a resource; the user loses the inherited permissions associated with the role for that resource.

Procedure 9.10. Removing a Role from a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Permissions tab of the details pane to list the assigned users, the user's role, and the inherited permissions for the selected resource.
  3. Select the user to remove from the resource.
  4. Click Remove. The Remove Permission window opens to confirm permissions removal.
  5. Click OK to remove the user role.
Result
You have removed the user's role, and the associated permissions, from the resource.

Chapter 10. Pools

10.1. Introduction to Virtual Machine Pools

Virtual machines can be placed in pools for use on demand by any user in a particular group. A single virtual machine cannot be used concurrently by multiple users. Different virtual machine pools can be set up for different purposes.
Users do not always get the same desktop, but get an available virtual machine of the required type, from the appropriate virtual machine pool.
Virtual machines in pools are stateless, data is not persistent across reboots. Virtual machines in a pool are started when there is a user request, and shut down when the user is finished.
Virtual machine pools can contain prestarted virtual machines waiting for user requests. This provides a faster response time, but uses system resources on idle virtual machines.

10.2. Virtual Machine Pool Tasks

10.2.1. Creating a Virtual Machine Pool

Summary
You can create a virtual pool that contains multiple virtual machines. Virtual machine pools provide virtual machines to end users in an on-demand basis.

Procedure 10.1. Creating a Virtual Machine Pool

  1. In flat mode, click the Pools resource tab to display a list of virtual machine pools.
  2. Click the New button to open the New Pool window.
  3. Use the drop-down menus to select the Data Center and Host Cluster.
  4. Enter the Name, Description, and Number of VMs for the pool.
  5. If applicable, use the drop-down menu to select a template.
  6. Enter the Memory Size to be used for each virtual machine in the pool and the Total Virtual CPUs.
  7. If applicable, click the Advanced Parameters expansion button and use the drop-down menus to select the Cores per Virtual Socket and Virtual Sockets.
  8. Use the drop-down menu to select the Operating System to be used for the virtual machines in the pool.
  9. In the Pool tab, select one of the following pool types:
    • Manual - The administrator is responsible for explicitly returning the virtual machine to the pool. The virtual machine reverts to the original base image after the administrator returns it to the pool.
    • Automatic - When the virtual machine is shut down, it automatically reverts to its base image and is returned to the virtual machine pool.
  10. The Initial Run, Console, Host, Resource Allocation, Boot Options, and Custom Properties tabs are not mandatory but define options for your pool. These tabs feature identical settings and controls as the New Virtual Machines window.
  11. Click OK to create the pool.
Result
You have created and configured a virtual machine pool with the specified number of identical virtual machines.
You can view these virtual machines in the Virtual Machines resource tab, or in the details pane of the Pools resource tab; a virtual machine in a pool is distinguished from independent virtual machines by its icon.
Virtual Machines Displaying in the Details Pane of a Virtual Machine Pool

Figure 10.1. Virtual Machines Displaying in the Details Pane of a Virtual Machine Pool


10.2.2. Editing a Resource

Summary
Edit the properties of a resource. The Edit window is identical to the New window, except that some fields are disabled.

Procedure 10.2. Editing a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click Edit to open the Edit window.
  3. Change the necessary properties and click OK.
Result
The new properties are saved to the resource. The Edit window will not close if a property field is invalid.

10.2.3. Prestarting Virtual Machines in a Pool

In a virtual machine pool, the machines are in a powered down state by default. When a user requests a virtual machine from a pool, a machine is powered up and assigned to the user. In contrast, a prestarted virtual machine is already running and waiting to be assigned to a user, decreasing the amount of time a user has to wait before being able to access a machine. When a prestarted virtual machine is shut down it is returned to the pool and restored to its original state. The maximum number of prestarted virtual machines is the number of virtual machines in the pool.
Summary
Prestarted virtual machines are suitable for environments in which users require immediate access to virtual machines which are not specifically assigned to them. Only automatic pools can have prestarted virtual machines.

Procedure 10.3. Prestarting Virtual Machines in a Pool

  1. Use the Pools resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the virtual machine pool in the results list.
  2. Click Edit to open the Edit Pool window.
  3. Enter the number of virtual machines to be prestarted in the Prestarted VMs field.
  4. Select the Pool tab. Ensure that the Pool Type is set to Automatic.
  5. Click OK.
Result
You have set a number of prestarted virtual machines in a pool. The prestarted machines are running and available for use.

10.2.4. Adding Virtual Machines to a Virtual Machine Pool

Summary
If you require more virtual machines than was originally provisioned in a virtual machine pool, add more machines to the pool.

Procedure 10.4. Adding Virtual Machines to a Virtual Machine Pool

  1. Use the Pools resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the virtual machine pool in the results list.
  2. Click Edit to open the Edit Pool window.
  3. Enter the number of additional virtual machines to add in the Increase number of VMs in pool by field.
  4. Click OK.
    The total number of virtual machines in the pool has increased.
Result
You have added more virtual machines to the virtual machine pool.

10.2.5. Detaching Virtual Machines from a Virtual Machine Pool

Summary
You can detach virtual machines from a virtual machine pool. Detaching a virtual machine removes it from the pool to become an independent virtual machine.

Procedure 10.5. Detaching Virtual Machines from a Virtual Machine Pool

  1. Use the Pools resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the virtual machine pool in the results list.
  2. Ensure the virtual machine has a status of Down as you cannot detach a running virtual machine.
    Click the Virtual Machines tab in the details pane to list the virtual machines in the pool.
  3. Select the virtual machine that you want to remove and click Detach to open the Detach Virtual Machine(s) confirmation window.
  4. Click OK to detach the virtual machine from the pool.

    Note

    The virtual machine still exists in the environment and can be viewed and accessed from the Virtual Machines resource tab. Note that the icon changes to denote that the detached virtual machine is an independent virtual machine.
    A Detached Virtual Machine

    Figure 10.2. A Detached Virtual Machine


Result
You have detached the virtual machine from the virtual machine pool.

10.2.6. Removing a Virtual Machine Pool

Summary
You can remove a virtual machine pool from a data center. This will delete all virtual machines in the pool; detaching virtual machines from the pool will preserve them as independent virtual machines.

Procedure 10.6. Removing a Virtual Machine Pool

  1. Use the Pools resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the virtual machine pool in the results list.
  2. Click Remove to open the Remove Pool(s) confirmation window.
  3. Click OK to remove the pool.
Result
You have removed the pool from the data center.

10.3. Pools and Permissions

10.3.1. Managing System Permissions for a Virtual Machine Pool

The system administrator, as the SuperUser, manages all aspects of the Administration Portal. More specific administrative roles can be assigned to other users. These restricted administrator roles are useful for empowering a user with certain administrative privileges that limit them to a specific resource: a DataCenterAdmin role has administrator privileges only for the assigned data center, a ClusterAdmin has administrator privileges only for the assigned cluster, and so forth.
A virtual machine pool administrator is a system administration role for virtual machine pools in a data center. This role can be applied to specific virtual machine pools, to a data center, or to the whole virtualized environment; this is useful to allow different users to manage certain virtual machine pool resources.
The virtual machine pool administrator role permits the following actions:
  • Create, edit, and remove pools; and
  • Add and detach virtual machines from the pool.

Note

You can only assign roles and permissions to existing users.

10.3.2. Virtual Machine Pool Administrator Roles Explained

Pool Permission Roles
The table below describes the administrator roles and privileges applicable to pool administration.

Table 10.1. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization System Administrator Roles

Role Privileges Notes
VmPoolAdmin System Administrator role of a virtual pool. Can create, delete, and configure a virtual pool, assign and remove virtual pool users, and perform basic operations on a virtual machine.
ClusterAdmin Cluster Administrator Can use, create, delete, manage all virtual machine pools in a specific cluster.

10.3.3. Assigning an Administrator or User Role to a Resource

Summary
Assign administrator or user roles to resources to allow users to access or manage that resource.

Procedure 10.7. Assigning a Role to a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Permissions tab of the details pane to list the assigned users, the user's role, and the inherited permissions for the selected resource.
  3. Click Add to open the Add Permission to User window.
  4. Enter the name or user name of an existing user into the Search text box and click Go. Select a user from the resulting list of possible matches.
  5. Select a role from the Role to Assign: drop-down menu.
  6. Click OK to assign the role and close the window.
Result
You have assigned a role to a user; the user now has the inherited permissions of that role enabled for that resource.

10.3.4. Removing an Administrator or User Role from a Resource

Summary
Remove an administrator or user role from a resource; the user loses the inherited permissions associated with the role for that resource.

Procedure 10.8. Removing a Role from a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Permissions tab of the details pane to list the assigned users, the user's role, and the inherited permissions for the selected resource.
  3. Select the user to remove from the resource.
  4. Click Remove. The Remove Permission window opens to confirm permissions removal.
  5. Click OK to remove the user role.
Result
You have removed the user's role, and the associated permissions, from the resource.

Chapter 11. Virtual Machine Disks

11.1. Understanding Virtual Machine Storage

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization supports three storage types: NFS, iSCSI and FCP.
In each type, a host known as the Storage Pool Manager (SPM) manages access between hosts and storage. The SPM host is the only node that has full access within the storage pool; the SPM can modify the storage domain metadata, and the pool's metadata. All other hosts can only access virtual machine hard disk image data.
By default in an NFS, local, or POSIX compliant data center, the SPM creates the virtual disk using a thin provisioned format as a file in a file system.
In iSCSI and other block-based data centers, the SPM creates a volume group on top of the Logical Unit Numbers (LUNs) provided, and makes logical volumes to use as virtual machine disks. Virtual machine disks on block-based storage are preallocated by default.
If the virtual disk is preallocated, a logical volume of the specified size in GB is created. The virtual machine can be mounted on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux server using kpartx, vgscan, vgchange and mount to investigate the virtual machine's processes or problems.
If the virtual disk is a thin provisioned, a 1 GB logical volume is created. The logical volume is continuously monitored by the host on which the virtual machine is running. As soon as the usage nears a threshold the host notifies the SPM, and the SPM extends the logical volume by 1 GB. The host is responsible for resuming the virtual machine after the logical volume has been extended. If the virtual machine goes into a paused state it means that the SPM could not extend the disk in time. This occurs if the SPM is too busy or if there is not enough storage space.
A virtual disk with a preallocated (RAW) format has significantly faster write speeds than a virtual disk with a thin provisioning (Qcow2) format. Thin provisioning takes significantly less time to create a virtual disk. The thin provision format is suitable for non-IO intensive virtual machines.

11.2. Understanding Virtual Disks

Virtual disks are of two types, Thin Provisioned or Preallocated. Preallocated disks are RAW formatted. Thin provisioned disks are Qcow2 formatted.
  • Preallocated
    A preallocated virtual disk has reserved storage of the same size as the virtual disk itself. The backing storage device (file/block device) is presented as is to the virtual machine with no additional layering in between. This results in better performance because no storage allocation is required during runtime.
    On SAN (iSCSI, FCP) this is achieved by creating a block device with the same size as the virtual disk. On NFS this is achieved by filling the backing hard disk image file with zeros. Preallocating storage on an NFS storage domain presumes that the backing storage is not Qcow2 formatted and zeroes will not be deduplicated in the hard disk image file. (If these assumptions are incorrect, do not select Preallocated for NFS virtual disks).
  • Thin Provisioned
    For sparse virtual disks backing storage is not reserved and is allocated as needed during runtime. This allows for storage over commitment under the assumption that most disks are not fully utilized and storage capacity can be utilized better. This requires the backing storage to monitor write requests and can cause some performance issues. On NFS backing storage is achieved simply by using files. On SAN this is achieved by creating a block device smaller than the virtual disk's defined size and communicating with the hypervisor to monitor necessary allocations. This does not require support from the underlying storage devices.
The possible combinations of storage types and formats are described in the following table.

Table 11.1. Permitted Storage Combinations

Storage Format Type Note
NFS or iSCSI/FCP RAW or Qcow2 Sparse or Preallocated
NFS RAW Preallocated A file with an initial size which equals the amount of storage defined for the virtual disk, and has no formatting.
NFS RAW Sparse A file with an initial size which is close to zero, and has no formatting.
NFS Qcow2 Sparse A file with an initial size which is close to zero, and has RAW formatting. Subsequent layers will be Qcow2 formatted.
SAN RAW Preallocated A block device with an initial size which equals the amount of storage defined for the virtual disk, and has no formatting.
SAN Qcow2 Preallocated A block device with an initial size which equals the amount of storage defined for the virtual disk, and has Qcow2 formatting.
SAN Qcow2 Sparse A block device with an initial size which is much smaller than the size defined for the VDisk (currently 1GB), and has Qcow2 formatting for which space is allocated as needed (currently in 1GB increments).

11.3. Shareable Disks in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization

Some applications require storage to be shared between servers. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization allows you to mark virtual machine hard disks as shareable and attach those disks to virtual machines. That way a single virtual disk can be used by multiple cluster-aware guests.
Shared disks are not to be used in every situation. For applications like clustered database servers, and other highly available services, shared disks are appropriate. Attaching a shared disk to multiple guests that are not cluster-aware is likely to cause data corruption because their reads and writes to the disk are not coordinated.
You cannot take a snapshot of a shared disk. Virtual disks that have snapshots taken of them cannot later be marked shareable.
You can mark a disk shareable either when you create it, or by editing the disk later.

11.4. Creating Unassociated Virtual Machine Hard Disks

Summary
You can create a virtual hard disk independently from any virtual machines. You can then attach your disk to a virtual machine, or many virtual machines if it's shareable.

Procedure 11.1. Creating Unassociated Virtual Machine Hard Disks

  1. Select the Disks resource tab.
  2. Click Add to open the Add Virtual Disk window.
    Add Virtual Disk Window

    Figure 11.1. Add Virtual Disk Window


  3. Use the radio buttons to select Internal or External(Direct Lun).
  4. Enter the Size(GB), Alias, and Description of the virtual disk.
  5. Use the drop-down menus to select the Interface, Format, Data Center, and Storage Domain of the virtual disk.
  6. Select the appropriate check boxes to wipe the disk after delete, make the disk bootable, and make the disk shareable.
  7. Click OK to create the virtual disk and close the window.
Result
You have created a virtual disk which can be shared between different virtual machines.

11.5. Explanation of Settings in the New Virtual Machine Disk and Edit Virtual Machine Disk Windows

Table 11.2. Add a disk settings: Internal

Field Name
Description
Size(GB)
Size of new virtual disk in GB.
Alias
The name of the template, limited to 40 characters.
Description
Optionally describe the new virtual disk.
Interface
The virtual interface the disk presents to virtual machines. VirtIO is faster but requires VirtIO drivers. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and higher includes VirtIO drivers. Windows does not include VirtIO drivers, but they can be installed from the guest tools ISO or virtual floppy disk. IDE devices do not require special drivers.
Format
The provisioning policy for the new virtual disk. Preallocated allots the entire size of the disk on the data domain at creation time. Thin provision starts at 1 GB and sets a maximum limit on the size the disk can grow to. Preallocated disks take more time to create than thin provisioned ones, but have better read and write performance. Preallocated is the recommended format for server disks. Thin provisioned disks are faster to create and allow for storage over-commitment. Thin provisioned is the recommended format for desktop disks.
Data Center
The data center in which this disk is available.
Storage Domain
The data domain that the disk is stored on.
Wipe after delete
Enhanced security for deletion of sensitive material when the disk is deleted.
Is bootable
Sets the bootable flag on the disk.
Is shareable
This disk can be attached to more than one virtual machine at a time.

The External(Direct LUN) settings include all of the entries from the Internal except for Size(GB) and some additional entries.

Table 11.3. Add a disk settings: External(Direct LUN)

Field Name
Description
Use Host
The host to use to mount the LUN.
Storage Type
Type of external LUN to add. Either iSCSI or Fibre Channel targets are allowed.
Discover Targets
Can be expanded when you are using iSCSI external LUNs and Targets > LUNs is selected.
Address
The hostname or IP address of the target server. The Address field is visible when you are using iSCSI external LUNs and Targets > LUNs is selected.
Port
The port that has been opened on the target server. The default is 3260. The Port field is visible when you are using iSCSI external LUNs and Targets > LUNs is selected.
User Authentication
The iSCSI server requires User Authentication.The User Authentication field is visible when you are using iSCSI external LUNs and Targets > LUNs is selected.
CHAP username and password
The username and password of a user with permission to login to LUNs. The CHAP username and password fields are accessible when you are using password protected iSCSI external LUNs and Targets > LUNs is selected.

Fill in all the fields correctly and your external LUNs are displayed to be used as virtual disks.

11.6. Moving a Virtual Machine Hard Disk Between Data Domains

Summary
You would like to move a virtual hard disk from one data domain to another. You might want to do this to take advantage of high performance storage, or because you would like to decommission one of your storage domains that contains virtual hard disks.

Procedure 11.2. Moving a Virtual Machine Hard Disk Between Data Domains

  1. Select the Disks resource tab.
  2. Select the virtual disk or disks to move.
  3. Click Move to open the Move Disk(s) window.
  4. Use the drop-down menu or menus to select the Target data domain.
  5. Click OK to move the disks and close the window.
Result
Disks have a Locked status while being moved. Upon completion, the virtual disk has been moved from the source domain to the target domain.

11.7. Virtual Disks and Permissions

11.7.1. Managing System Permissions for a Virtual Disk

The system administrator, as the SuperUser, manages all aspects of the Administration Portal. More specific administrative roles can be assigned to other users. These restricted administrator roles are useful for empowering a user with certain administrative privileges that limit them to a specific resource: a DataCenterAdmin role has administrator privileges only for the assigned data center, a ClusterAdmin has administrator privileges only for the assigned cluster, a StorageAdmin has administrator privileges only for the assigned storage domain, and so forth.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager provides two default virtual disk user roles, but no default virtual disk administrator roles. One of these user roles, the DiskCreator role, enables the administration of virtual disks from the User Portal. This role can be applied to specific virtual machines, to a data center, to a specific storage domain, or to the whole virtualized environment; this is useful to allow different users to manage different virtual resources.
The virtual disk creator role permits the following actions:
  • Create, edit, and remove virtual disks associated with a virtual machine or other resources; and
  • Edit user permissions for virtual disks.

Note

You can only assign roles and permissions to existing users.

11.7.2. Virtual Disk User Roles Explained

Virtual Disk User Permission Roles
The table below describes the user roles and privileges applicable to using and administrating virtual machine disks in the User Portal.

Table 11.4. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization System Administrator Roles

Role Privileges Notes
DiskOperator Virtual disk user. Can use, view and edit virtual disks. Inherits permissions to use the virtual machine to which the virtual disk is attached.
DiskCreator Can create, edit, manage and remove virtual machine disks within assigned clusters or data centers. This role is not applied to a specific virtual disk; apply this role to a user for the whole environment with the Configure window. Alternatively apply this role for specific data centers, clusters, or storage domains.

11.7.3. Assigning an Administrator or User Role to a Resource

Summary
Assign administrator or user roles to resources to allow users to access or manage that resource.

Procedure 11.3. Assigning a Role to a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Permissions tab of the details pane to list the assigned users, the user's role, and the inherited permissions for the selected resource.
  3. Click Add to open the Add Permission to User window.
  4. Enter the name or user name of an existing user into the Search text box and click Go. Select a user from the resulting list of possible matches.
  5. Select a role from the Role to Assign: drop-down menu.
  6. Click OK to assign the role and close the window.
Result
You have assigned a role to a user; the user now has the inherited permissions of that role enabled for that resource.

11.7.4. Removing an Administrator or User Role from a Resource

Summary
Remove an administrator or user role from a resource; the user loses the inherited permissions associated with the role for that resource.

Procedure 11.4. Removing a Role from a Resource

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Permissions tab of the details pane to list the assigned users, the user's role, and the inherited permissions for the selected resource.
  3. Select the user to remove from the resource.
  4. Click Remove. The Remove Permission window opens to confirm permissions removal.
  5. Click OK to remove the user role.
Result
You have removed the user's role, and the associated permissions, from the resource.

Part II. Administering the Environment

Chapter 12. Users and Roles

12.1. Introduction to Users

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization uses external directory services for user authentication and information. All user accounts must be created in external directory servers; these users are called directory users. The exception is the admin user which resides in the internal domain created during installation.
After a directory server is attached to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager, the users in the directory can be added to the Administration Portal, making them RHEVM users. RHEVM users can be assigned different roles and permissions according to the tasks they have to perform.
There are two types of RHEVM users - end users who use and manage virtual resources from the User Portal, and administrators who maintain the system infrastructure using the Administration Portal. User roles and admin roles can be assigned to RHEVM users for individual resources like virtual machines and hosts, or on a hierarchy of objects like clusters and data centers.

12.2. Directory Users

12.2.1. Directory Services Support in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization

During installation Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager creates its own internal administration user, admin. This account is intended for use when initially configuring the environment, and for troubleshooting. To add other users to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization you will need to attach a directory server to the Manager using the Domain Management Tool, rhevm-manage-domains.
Once at least one directory server has been attached to the Manager you will be able to add users that exist in the directory server and assign roles to them using the Administration Portal. Users will be identified by their User Principle Name (UPN) of the form user@domain. Attachment of more than one directory server to the Manager is also supported.
The directory servers currently supported for use with Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.1 are:
  • Active Directory;
  • Identity, Policy, Audit (IPA); and
  • Red Hat Directory Server 9 (RHDS 9).
You must ensure that the correct DNS records exist for your directory server. In particular you must ensure that the DNS records for the directory server include:
  • A valid pointer record (PTR) for the directory server's reverse look-up address.
  • A valid service record (SRV) for LDAP over TCP port 389.
  • A valid service record (SRV) for Kerberos over TCP port 88.
  • A valid service record (SRV) for Kerberos over UDP port 88.
If these records do not exist in DNS then you will be unable to add the domain to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager configuration using rhevm-manage-domains.
For more detailed information on installing and configuring a supported directory server, refer to the vendor's documentation:

Important

A user must be created in the directory server specifically for use as the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization administrative user. Do not use the administrative user for the directory server as the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization administrative user.

Important

It is not possible to install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager (rhevm) and IPA (ipa-server) on the same system. IPA is incompatible with the mod_ssl package, which is required by Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.

Important

If you are using Active Directory as your directory server, and you wish to use sysprep in the creation of Templates and Virtual Machines, then the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization administrative user must be delegated control over the Domain to:
  • Join a computer to the domain
  • Modify the membership of a group
For information on creation of user accounts in Active Directory refer to http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc732336.aspx.
For information on delegation of control in Active Directory refer to http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc732524.aspx.

Note

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager uses Kerberos to authenticate with directory servers. RHDS does not provide native support for Kerberos. If you are using RHDS as your directory server then you must ensure that the directory server is made a service within a valid Kerberos domain. To do this you will need to perform these steps while referring to the relevant directory server documentation:
  • Configure the memberOf plug-in for RHDS to allow group membership. In particular ensure that the value of the memberofgroupattr attribute of the memberOf plug-in is set to uniqueMember.
    Consult the Red Hat Directory Server 9.0 Plug-in Guide for more information on configuring the memberOf plug-in.
  • Define the directory server as a service of the form ldap/hostname@REALMNAME in the Kerberos realm. Replace hostname with the fully qualified domain name associated with the directory server and REALMNAME with the fully qualified Kerberos realm name. The Kerberos realm name must be specified in capital letters.
  • Generate a keytab file for the directory server in the Kerberos realm. The keytab file contains pairs of Kerberos principals and their associated encrypted keys. These keys will allow the directory server to authenticate itself with the Kerberos realm.
    Consult the documentation for your Kerberos principle for more information on generating a keytab file.
  • Install the keytab file on the directory server. Then configure RHDS to recognize the keytab file and accept Kerberos authentication using GSSAPI.
    Consult the Red Hat Directory Server 9.0 Administration Guide for more information on configuring RHDS to use an external keytab file.
  • Test the configuration on the directory server by using the kinit command to authenticate as a user defined in the Kerberos realm. Once authenticated run the ldapsearch command against the directory server. Use the -Y GSSAPI parameters to ensure the use of Kerberos for authentication.

12.3. User Authorization

12.3.1. User Authorization Model

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization applies authorization controls based on the combination of the three components:
  • The user performing the action
  • The type of action being performed
  • The object on which the action is being performed

12.3.2. User Actions

For an action to be successfully performed, the user must have the appropriate permission for the object being acted upon. Each type of action corresponds to a permission. There are many different permissions in the system, so for simplicity:
Actions

Figure 12.1. Actions


Important

Some actions are performed on more than one object. For example, copying a template to another storage domain will impact both the template and the destination storage domain. The user performing an action must have appropriate permissions for all objects the action impacts.

12.3.3. User Permissions

Permissions enable users to perform actions on objects, where objects are either individual objects or container objects.
Permissions & Roles

Figure 12.2. Permissions & Roles


Any permissions that apply to a container object also apply to all members of that container. The following diagram depicts the hierarchy of objects in the system.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Object Hierarchy

Figure 12.3. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Object Hierarchy


12.4. RHEVM User Properties and Roles

12.4.1. User Properties

Roles and permissions are the properties of the user. Roles are predefined sets of privileges that permit access to different levels of physical and virtual resources. Multilevel administration provides a finely grained hierarchy of permissions. For example, a data center administrator has permissions to manage all objects in the data center, while a host administrator has system administrator permissions to a single physical host. A user can have permissions to use a single virtual machine but not make any changes to the virtual machine configurations, while another user can be assigned system permissions to a virtual machine.

12.4.2. User and Administrator Roles

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization provides a range of pre-configured roles, from an administrator with system-wide permissions to an end user with access to a single virtual machine. While you cannot change or remove the default roles, you can clone and customize them, or create new roles according to your requirements. There are two types of roles:
  • Administrator Role: Allows access to the Administration Portal for managing physical and virtual resources. An administrator role does not confer any permissions for the User Portal.
  • User Role: Allows access to the User Portal for managing and accessing virtual machines and templates. A user role does not confer any permissions for the Administration Portal.
For example, if you have an administrator role on a cluster, you can manage all virtual machines in the cluster using the Administration Portal. However, you cannot access any of these virtual machines in the User Portal; this requires a user role.

12.4.3. User Roles Explained

The table below describes basic user roles which confer permissions to access and configure virtual machines in the User Portal.

Table 12.1. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization User Roles - Basic

Role Privileges Notes
UserRole Can access and use virtual machines and pools. Can log in to the User Portal, use assigned virtual machines and pools, view virtual machine state and details.
PowerUserRole Can create and manage virtual machines and templates. Apply this role to a user for the whole environment with the Configure window, or for specific data centers or clusters. For example, if a PowerUserRole is applied on a data center level, the PowerUser can create virtual machines and templates in the data center.
UserVmManager System administrator of a virtual machine. Can manage virtual machines, create and use snapshots, and migrate virtual machines. A user who creates a virtual machine in the User Portal is automatically assigned the UserVmManager role on the machine.

Note

In Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.0, the PowerUserRole only granted permissions for virtual machines which are directly assigned to the PowerUser, or virtual machines created by the PowerUser. Now, the VmCreator role provides privileges previously conferred by the PowerUserRole. The PowerUserRole can now be applied on a system-wide level, or on specific data centers or clusters, and grants permissions to all virtual machines and templates within the system or specific resource. Having a PowerUserRole is equivalent to having the VmCreator, DiskCreator, and TemplateCreator roles.
The table below describes advanced user roles which allow you to do more fine tuning of permissions for resources in the User Portal.

Table 12.2. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization User Roles - Advanced

Role Privileges Notes
UserTemplateBasedVm Limited privileges to only use Templates. Can use templates to create virtual machines.
DiskOperator Virtual disk user. Can use, view and edit virtual disks. Inherits permissions to use the virtual machine to which the virtual disk is attached.
VmCreator Can create virtual machines in the User Portal. This role is not applied to a specific virtual machine; apply this role to a user for the whole environment with the Configure window. Alternatively apply this role for specific data centers or clusters. When applying this role to a cluster, you must also apply the DiskCreator role on an entire data center, or on specific storage domains.
TemplateCreator Can create, edit, manage and remove virtual machine templates within assigned resources. This role is not applied to a specific template; apply this role to a user for the whole environment with the Configure window. Alternatively apply this role for specific data centers, clusters, or storage domains.
DiskCreator Can create, edit, manage and remove virtual machine disks within assigned clusters or data centers. This role is not applied to a specific virtual disk; apply this role to a user for the whole environment with the Configure window. Alternatively apply this role for specific data centers or storage domains.
TemplateOwner Can edit and delete the template, assign and manage user permissions for the template. This role is automatically assigned to the user who creates a template.

12.4.4. Administrator Roles Explained

The table below describes basic administrator roles which confer permissions to access and configure resources in the Administration Portal.

Table 12.3. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization System Administrator Roles - Basic

Role Privileges Notes
SuperUser System Administrator of the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment. Has full permissions across all objects and levels, can manage all objects across all data centers.
ClusterAdmin Cluster Administrator. Can use, create, delete, manage all resources in a cluster, including hosts, templates and virtual machines.
DataCenterAdmin Data Center Administrator. Can use, create, delete, manage all resources in a data center, including clusters, hosts, templates and virtual machines.

The table below describes advanced administrator roles which allow you to do more fine tuning of permissions for resources in the Administration Portal.

Table 12.4. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization System Administrator Roles - Advanced

Role Privileges Notes
TemplateAdmin Administrator of a virtual machine template. Can create, delete, and configure the storage domains and network details of templates, and move templates between domains.
StorageAdmin Storage Administrator. Can create, delete, configure, and manage an assigned storage domain.
HostAdmin Host Administrator. Can attach, remove, configure, and manage a specific host.
NetworkAdmin Network Administrator. Can configure and manage the network of a particular data center, cluster, or host. A network administrator of a data center or cluster inherits network permissions for virtual pools within the cluster.
VmPoolAdmin System Administrator of a virtual pool. Can create, delete, and configure a virtual pool; assign and remove virtual pool users; and perform basic operations on a virtual machine in the pool.
GlusterAdmin Gluster Storage Administrator. Can create, delete, configure, and manage Gluster storage volumes.

12.5. RHEVM User Tasks

12.5.1. Adding Users

Summary
Users in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization must be added from an external directory service before they can be assigned roles and permissions.

Procedure 12.1. Adding Users to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization

  1. Click the Users tab to display the list of authorized users.
  2. Click Add. The Add Users and Groups window opens.
    Add Users and Groups Window

    Figure 12.4. Add Users and Groups Window


  3. In the Search drop down menu, select the appropriate domain. Enter a name or part of a name in the search text field, and click GO. Alternatively, click GO to view a list of all users and groups.
  4. Select the check boxes for the appropriate users or groups.
  5. Click OK.
Result
The added user displays on the Users tab.

12.5.2. Viewing User Information

Summary
You can view detailed information on each user in the Users tab.

Procedure 12.2. Viewing User Information

  1. Click the Users tab to display the list of authorized users.
  2. Select the user, or perform a search if the user is not visible on the results list.
  3. The details pane displays for the selected user, usually with the General tab displaying general information, such as the domain name, email and status of the user.
  4. The other tabs allow you to view groups, permissions, quotas, and events for the user.
    For example, to view the groups to which the user belongs, click the Directory Groups tab.
Result
You have viewed domain, permissions, quota, group and event information for a user.

12.5.3. Viewing User Permissions on Resources

Summary
Users can be assigned permissions on specific resources or a hierarchy of resources. You can view the assigned users and their permissions on each resource.

Procedure 12.3. Viewing User Permissions on Resources

  1. Use the resource tabs, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the resource in the results list.
  2. Click the Permissions tab of the details pane to list the assigned users, the user's role, and the inherited permissions for the selected resource.
Result
You have viewed the assigned users and their roles for a selected resource.

12.5.4. Removing Users

Summary
When a user account is no longer required, remove it from Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization.

Procedure 12.4. Removing Users

  1. Click the Users tab to display the list of authorized users.
    Users Tab

    Figure 12.5. Users Tab


  2. Select the user to be removed. Ensure the user is not running any virtual machines.
  3. Click the Remove button. A message displays prompting you to confirm the removal. Click OK.
Result
The user is removed from Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization, but not from the external directory.

12.5.5. Configuring Roles

Roles are predefined sets of privileges that can be configured from Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. Roles provide access and management permissions to different levels of resources in the data center, and to specific physical and virtual resources.
With multilevel administration, any permissions which apply to a container object also apply to all individual objects within that container. For example, when a host administrator role is assigned to a user on a specific host, the user gains permissions to perform any of the available host operations, but only on the assigned host. However, if the host administrator role is assigned to a user on a data center, the user gains permissions to perform host operations on all hosts within the cluster of the data center.

12.5.6. Creating a New Role

Summary
If the role you require is not on Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization's default list of roles, you can create a new role and customize it to suit your purposes.

Procedure 12.5. Creating a New Role

  1. On the header bar, click the Configure button to open the Configure window. The window shows a list of default User and Administrator roles, and any custom roles.
  2. Click New. The New Role dialog box displays.
    The New Role Dialog

    Figure 12.6. The New Role Dialog


  3. Enter the Name and Description of the new role.
  4. Select either Admin or User as the Account Type.
  5. Use the Expand All or Collapse All buttons to view more or fewer of the permissions for the listed objects in the Check Boxes to Allow Action list. You can also expand or collapse the options for each object.
  6. For each of the objects, select or deselect the actions you wish to permit or deny for the role you are setting up.
  7. Click OK to apply the changes you have made. The new role displays on the list of roles.
Result
You have created a new role with permissions to specific resources. You can assign the new role to users.

12.5.7. Editing or Copying a Role

Summary
You can change the settings for roles you have created, but you cannot change default roles. To change default roles, clone and modify them to suit your requirements.

Procedure 12.6. Editing or Copying a Role

  1. On the header bar, click the Configure button to open the Configure window. The window shows a list of default User and Administrator roles, and any custom roles.
  2. Select the role you wish to change. Click Edit to open the Edit Role window, or click Copy to open the Copy Role window.
  3. If necessary, edit the Name and Description of the role.
  4. Use the Expand All or Collapse All buttons to view more or fewer of the permissions for the listed objects. You can also expand or collapse the options for each object.
  5. For each of the objects, select or deselect the actions you wish to permit or deny for the role you are editing.
  6. Click OK to apply the changes you have made.
Result
You have edited the properties of a role, or cloned a role.

12.6. User Role and Authorization Examples

The following examples illustrate how to apply authorization controls for various scenarios, using the different features of the authorization system described in this chapter.

Example 12.1. Cluster Permissions

Sarah is the system administrator for the accounts department of a company. All the virtual resources for her department are organized under a Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization cluster called Accounts. She is assigned the ClusterAdmin role on the accounts cluster. This enables her to manage all virtual machines in the cluster, since the virtual machines are child objects of the cluster. Managing the virtual machines includes editing, adding, or removing virtual resources such as disks, and taking snapshots. It does not allow her to manage any resources outside this cluster. Because ClusterAdmin is an administrator role, it allows her to use the Administration Portal to manage these resources, but does not give her any access via the User Portal.

Example 12.2. VM PowerUser Permissions

John is a software developer in the accounts department. He uses virtual machines to build and test his software. Sarah has created a virtual desktop called johndesktop for him. John is assigned the UserVmManager role on the johndesktop virtual machine. This allows him to access this single virtual machine using the User Portal. Because he has UserVmManager permissions, he can modify the virtual machine and add resources to it, such as new virtual disks. Because UserVmManager is a user role, it does not allow him to use the Administration Portal.

Example 12.3. Data Center Power User Role Permissions

Penelope is an office manager. In addition to her own responsibilities, she occasionally helps the HR manager with recruitment tasks, such as scheduling interviews and following up on reference checks. As per corporate policy, Penelope needs to use a particular application for recruitment tasks.
While Penelope has her own machine for office management tasks, she wants to create a separate virtual machine to run the recruitment application. She is assigned PowerUserRole permissions for the data center in which her new virtual machine will reside. This is because to create a new virtual machine, she needs to make changes to several components within the data center, including creating the virtual machine disk image in the storage domain.
Note that this is not the same as assigning DataCenterAdmin privileges to Penelope. As a PowerUser for a data center, Penelope can log in to the User Portal and perform virtual machine-specific actions on virtual machines within the data center. She cannot perform data center-level operations such as attaching hosts or storage to a data center.

Example 12.4. Custom Role Permissions

Rachel works in the IT department, and is responsible for managing user accounts in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization. She needs permission to add user accounts and assign them the appropriate roles and permissions. She does not use any virtual machines herself, and should not have access to administration of hosts, virtual machines, clusters or data centers. There is no built-in role which provides her with this specific set of permissions. A custom role must be created to define the set of permissions appropriate to Rachel's position.
UserManager Custom Role

Figure 12.7. UserManager Custom Role


The UserManager custom role shown above allows manipulation of users, permissions and roles. These actions are organized under System - the top level object of the hierarchy shown in Figure 12.7, “UserManager Custom Role”. This means they apply to all other objects in the system. The role is set to have an Account Type of Admin. This means that when she is assigned this role, Rachel can only use the Administration Portal, not the User Portal.

Chapter 13. Quotas

13.1. Introduction to Quota

Quota is a resource limitation tool provided with Red Hat Enterprise Virtualizaton. Quota may be thought of as a layer of limitations on top of the layer of limitations set by User Permissions.
Quota is a data-center object.
Quota allows administrators of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environments to limit user access to memory, CPU, and storage. Quota defines pools of memory resources and pools of storage resources to which administrators can assign users. Users may draw on only the resources assigned to them. When resources in the pool are exhausted, The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager denies user actions that draw from the defined pool.
There are two different kinds of Quota:

Table 13.1. The Two Different Kinds of Quota

Quota type Definition
Run-time Quota This quota limits the consumption of run time resources, like CPU and memory.
Storage Quota This quota limits the amount of storage available.

Quota, like SELinux, has three modes:

Table 13.2. Quota Modes

Quota Mode Function
Enforced This mode puts into effect the Quota that you have set in audit mode, limiting resources to the group or user affected by the Quota.
Audit This mode allows you to change Quota settings. Choose this mode to increase or decrease the amount of run-time quota and the amount of storage quota available to users affected by the Quota.
Disabled This mode turns off the run-time and storage limitations defined by the Quota.

When a user attempts to run a virtual machine, the specifications of the virtual machine are compared to the storage allowance and the run-time allowance set in the applicable Quota.
If starting a virtual machine causes the aggregated resources of all running virtual machines covered by a Quota to exceed the allowance defined in the Quota, then the Manager refuses to run the virtual machine.
When a user creates a new disk, the requested disk size is added to the aggregated disk usage of all the other disks covered by the applicable Quota. If the new disk takes the total aggregated disk usage above the amount allowed by the Quota, disk creation fails.
In order to permit the collocation of users on the same hardware, Quota supports hard and soft thresholds. Administrators can use quota to set thresholds on resources. These thresholds appear, from the user's point of view, as 100% usage of that resource. To prevent failures when the customer unexpectedly exceeds this threshold, the interface supports a "grace" amount by which the threshold can be briefly exceeded. Exceeding the threshold results in a warning sent to the customer.

Important

Quota imposes limitations upon the running of virtual machines. Ignoring these limitations is likely to result in a situation in which you cannot use your virtual machines and virtual disks.
When Quota is running in enforced mode, virtual machines and disks that do not have quotas assigned cannot be used.
To power on a virtual machine, a quota must be assigned to that virtual machine.
To create a snapshot of a virtual machine, the disk associated with the virtual machine must have a quota assigned.
When creating a template from a virtual machine, you are prompted to select the quota that you want the template to consume. This allows you to set the template (and all future machines created from the template) to consume a different quota than the virtual machine and disk from which the template is generated.

13.2. Shared Quota and Individually-defined Quota

Users with SuperUser permissions can create quotas for individual users or quotas for groups.
Group quotas can be set for Active Directory users. If a group of ten users are given a quota of 1TB of storage and one of the ten users fills the entire terabyte, then the entire group will be in excess of the Quota and none of the ten users will be able to use any of the storage associated with their group.
An individual user's quota is set for only the individual. Once the individual user has used up all of his or her storage or run-time quota, the user will be in excess of the quota and the user will no longer be able to use the storage associated with his or her Quota.

13.3. Quota Accounting

When a quota is assigned to a consumer or a resource, each action by that consumer or on the resource involving storage, vCPU, or memory results in quota consumption or quota release.
Since the quota acts as an upper bound that limits the user's access to resources, the quota calculations may differ from the actual current use of the user. The quota is calculated for the max growth potential and not the current usage.

Example 13.1. Accounting example

A user runs a virtual machine with 1 vCPU and 1024 MB memory. The action consumes 1 vCPU and 1024 MB of the quota assigned to that user. When the virtual machine is stopped 1 vCPU and 1024 MB of RAM are released back to the quota assigned to that user. Run-time quota consumption is accounted for only during the actual run-time of the consumer.
A user creates a virtual thin provision disk of 10GB. The actual disk usage may indicate only 3GB of that disk are actually in use. The quota consumption, however, would be 10GB, the max growth potential of that disk.

13.4. Enabling and Changing a Quota Mode in a Data Center

Summary
This procedure enables or changes the Quota mode in a data center. A Quota mode must be selected before Quotas can be defind. You must be logged in to the Web Administration Portal to follow the steps of this procedure.
Audit mode is a good way to test your Quota make sure it works as you expect it to. You do not need to have your Quota in Audit mode to create or change a Quota.

Procedure 13.1. Enabling and Changing Quota in a Data Center

  1. Click the Data Center tab in the Navigation Pane.
  2. From the list of data centers displayed in the Navigation Pane, choose the data center whose Quota policy you plan to edit.
  3. Click Edit in the top left of the Navigation Pane.
  4. In the Quota drop-down, change Quota mode to Audit.
  5. Click the OK button.
Result
You have now enabled a Quota mode at the Data Center level. If you've set the mode to Audit before testing a new Quota, use this procedure again to change the Quota mode to Enforcing when the Quota policy reflects your usage plan.

13.5. Creating a New Quota Policy

Summary
You have enabled Quota mode, either in Audit or Enforcing mode. You want to define a Quota policy to manage resource usage in your data center.

Procedure 13.2. Creating a New Quota Policy

  1. In tree mode, select the data center. The Quota tab appears in the Navigation Pane.
  2. Click the Quota tab at the top of the Navigation Pane.
  3. Click Add in the top left of the Navigation Pane. The New Quota window opens.
  4. Fill in the Name field with a meaningful name.
    Fill in the Description field with a meaningful name.
  5. In the Memory & CPU section of the New Quota window, use the green slider to set Cluster Threshold.
  6. In the Memory & CPU section of the New Quota window, use the blue slider to set Cluster Grace.
  7. Click Edit on the bottom-right of the Memory & CPU field.
  8. Under the Memory: field, select either the Unlimited radio button (to allow limitless use of Memory resources in the cluster), or select the limit to radio button to set the amount of memory set by this quota. If you select the limit to radio button, input a memory quota in megabytes (MB) in the MB field.
  9. Under the CPU field, select either the Unlimited radio button or the limit to radio button to set the amount of CPU set by this quota. If you select the limit to radio button, input a number of vCPUs in the vCpus field.
  10. Click OK in the bottom-right of the Edit Quota window.
  11. In the Quota section of the New Quota window, use the green slider to set Storage Threshold.
  12. In the Quota section of the New Quota window, use the blue slider to set Storage Grace.
  13. Click Edit on the bottom-right of the Storage field.
  14. Under the Storage Quota field, select either the Unlimited radio button (to allow limitless use of Storage) or the limit to radio button to set the amount of storage to which Quota will limit users. If you select the limit to radio button, input a storage quota size in gigabytes (GB) in the GB field.
  15. Click OK in the bottom-right of the Edit Quota window. You are returned to the New Quota window.
  16. Click OK in the bottom-right of the New Quota window.
Result
You have created a new Quota policy.

13.6. Explanation of Quota Threshold Settings

Table 13.3. Quota thresholds and grace

Setting Definition
Cluster Threshold The amount of cluster resources available per data center
Cluster Grace The amount of the cluster available for the data center after exhausting the data center's Cluster Threshold.
Storage Threshold The amount of storage resources available per data center.
Storage Grace The amount of storage available for the data center after exhausting the data center's Storage Threshold.

If a Quota is set to 100GB with 20% Grace, then consumers are blocked from using storage after they use 120GB of storage. If the same Quota has a Threshold set at 70%, then consumers receive a warning when they excced 70GB of storage consumption (but they remain able to consume storage until they reach 120GB of storage consumption.) Both "Threshold" and "Grace" are set relative to the Quota. "Threshold" may be thought of as the "soft limit", and exceeding it generates a warning. "Grace" may be thought of as the "hard limit", and exceeding it makes it impossible to consume any more storage resources.

13.7. Assigning a Quota to an Object

Summary
This procedure explains how to associate a virtual machine with a quota.

Procedure 13.3.  Assigning a Quota to a Virtual Machine

  1. In the navigation pane, select the Virtual Machine to which you plan to add a quota.
  2. Click Edit. The Edit Desktop Virtual Machine window appears.
  3. Select the quota you want the virtual machine to consume. Use the Quota drop-down to do this.
  4. Click OK.
Result
You have designated a quota for the virtual machine you selected.
Summary
This procedure explains how to associate a virtual machine disk with a quota.

Procedure 13.4. Assigning a Quota to a Virtual Disk

  1. In the navigation pane, select the Virtual Machine whose disk(s) you plan to add a quota.
  2. In the details pane, select the disk you plan to associate with a quota.
  3. Click Edit. The Edit Virtual Disk window appears.
  4. Select the quota you want the virtual disk to consume.
  5. Click OK.
Result
You have designated a quota for the virtual disk you selected.

Important

Quota must be selected for all objects associated with a virtual machine, in order for that virtual machine to work. If you fail to select a quota for the objects associated with a virtual machine, the virtual machine will not work. The error that the Manager throws in this situation is generic, which makes it difficult to know if the error was thrown because you did not associate a quota with all of the objects associated with the virtual machine. It is not possible to take snapshots of virtual machines that do not have an assigned quota. It is not possible to create templates of virtual machines whose virtual disks do not have assigned quotas.

13.8. Using Quota to Limit Resources by User

Summary
This procedure describes how to use Quota to limit the resources a user has access to.

Procedure 13.5. Assigning a User to a Quota

  1. In the tree, click the Data Center associated with the Quota you want to associate with a User.
  2. Click the Quota tab in the Navigation Pane.
  3. Select the target Quota in the list in the Navigation Pane.
  4. Click the Consumers tab in the Details Pane.
  5. Click Add at the top of the Details Pane.
  6. In the Search field, type the name of the user you want to associate with the Quota.
  7. Click GO.
  8. Select the check box at the left side of the row containing the name of the target user.
  9. Click OK in the bottom right of the Assign Users and Groups to Quota window.
Result
After a short time, the user will appear in the consumers tab of the Details Pane.

13.9. Editing Quotas

Summary
This procedure describes how to change existing Quotas.

Procedure 13.6. Editing Quotas

  1. On the tree pane, click on the data center whose quota you want to edit.
  2. Click on the Quota tab in the Navigation Pane.
  3. Click the name of the Quota you want to edit.
  4. Click Edit at the top left of the Navigation pane, under the row of tabs.
  5. In the Edit Quota window that opens, enter a meaningful name in the Name field.
  6. Enter a meaningful description in the Description field.
  7. Select either the All Clusters radio button or the Specific Clusters radio button.
  8. Select either the All Storage Domains radio button or the Specific Storage Domains radio button.
Result
You have changed an existing Quota.

13.10. Removing Quotas

Summary
This procedure describes how to remove Quotas.

Procedure 13.7. Removing Quotas

  1. On the tree pane, click on the data center whose quota you want to edit.
  2. Click on the Quota tab in the Navigation Pane.
  3. Click the name of the Quota you want to remove.
  4. Click Remove at the top of the Navigation pane, under the row of tabs.
Result
You have removed a Quota.

Chapter 14. Event Notifications

14.1. Configuring Event Notifications

Summary
You want to be emailed when an event happens in your Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment. You need to set up a mail transfer agent to deliver messages.

Procedure 14.1. Configuring Event Notifications

  1. Ensure that you have set up the MTA agent with the appropriate variables.
  2. Use the Users resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the user.
  3. Click the Event Notifier tab in the details pane to list events for which the user will be notified. This list will be blank if the user does not have event notification configured.
  4. Click Manage Events to open the Add Event Notification window.
    The Add Events Notification Window

    Figure 14.1. The Add Events Notification Window


  5. Use the Expand All button, or the subject-specific expansion buttons, to view the events.
  6. Select the appropriate check boxes.
  7. Enter an email address in the Mail Recipient: field.
  8. Click OK to save changes and close the window.
  9. Restart the rhevm-notifierd service on the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. This activates the changes you have just made:
    # rhevm-notifierd restart
Result
You now receive emails based on events in your Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Environment. The selected events display on the Event Notifier tab for the user.

14.2. Parameters for event notifications in notifier.conf

Table 14.1. notifier.conf variables

Variable name Default Remarks
INTERVAL_IN_SECONDS 120 The interval in seconds between instances of dispatching messages to subscribers.
MAIL_SERVER none The SMTP mail server address. Required.
MAIL_PORT 25 The default port of a non-secured SMTP server is 25. The default port of a secured SMTP server (one with SSL enabled) is 465.
MAIL_USER none If SSL is enabled to authenticate the user, then this variable must be set. This variable is also used to specify the "from" user address when the MAIL_FROM variable is not set. Some mail servers do not support this functionality. The address is in RFC822 format.
MAIL_PASSWORD none This variable is required to authenticate the user if the mail server requires authentication or if SSL is enabled.
MAIL_ENABLE_SSL false This indicates whether SSL should be used to communicate with the mail server.
HTML_MESSAGE_FORMAT false The mail server sends messages in HTML format if this variable is set to "true".
MAIL_FROM none This variable specifies a "from" address in RFC822 format, if supported by the mail server.
MAIL_REPLY_TO none This variable specifies "reply-to" addresses in RFC822 format on sent mail, if supported by the mail server.
DAYS_TO_KEEP_HISTORY none This variable sets the number of days dispatched events will be preserved in the history table. If this variable is not set, events remain on the history table indefinitely.

14.3. Canceling Event Notifications

Summary
A user has configured some unnecessary event notifications and wants them canceled.

Procedure 14.2. Canceling Event Notifications

  1. In the Users tab, select the user or the user group.
  2. Select the Event Notifier tab in the details pane to list events for which the user receives notifications.
  3. Click Manage Events to open the Add Event Notification window.
  4. Use the Expand All button, or the subject-specific expansion buttons, to view the events.
  5. Clear the appropriate check boxes to remove notification for that event.
  6. Click OK to save changes and close the window.
Result
You have canceled unnecessary event notifications for the user.

Chapter 15. Updating the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Environment

15.1. Upgrades between Minor Releases

15.1.1. Checking for Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Updates

Summary
Use the rhevm-check-update command, included in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager, to check for updates.

Procedure 15.1. Checking for Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Updates

  1. Run rhevm-check-update as the root user.
    # rhevm-check-update
    • Where no updates are available the command will output the text No updates available.
      # rhevm-check-update
      Loaded plugins: product-id, versionlock
      Checking for updates... (This may take several minutes)
      No updates available
      
    • Where updates are available the command will list the packages to be updated.
      # rhevm-check-update
      Loaded plugins: product-id
      Checking for updates... (This may take several minutes)
      12 Updates available:
       * rhevm-3.1.0-15.el6ev.noarch
       * rhevm-backend-3.1.0-15.el6ev.noarch
       * rhevm-config-3.1.0-15.el6ev.noarch
       * rhevm-dbscripts-3.1.0-15.el6ev.noarch
       * rhevm-genericapi-3.1.0-15.el6ev.noarch
       * rhevm-notification-service-3.1.0-15.el6ev.noarch
       * rhevm-restapi-3.1.0-15.el6ev.noarch
       * rhevm-setup-3.1.0-15.el6ev.noarch
       * rhevm-tools-common-3.1.0-15.el6ev.noarch
       * rhevm-userportal-3.1.0-15.el6ev.noarch
       * rhevm-webadmin-portal-3.1.0-15.el6ev.noarch
       * vdsm-bootstrap-4.9.6-32.0.el6_3.noarch
      
Result
You have successfully checked for Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager updates.

15.1.2. Updating Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager

Summary
Updates to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager are released via Red Hat Network. Before installing an update from Red Hat Network be sure to read the advisory text associated with it as well as the most recent version of the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization — Release Notes, and the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization — Technical Notes. To complete an upgrade a number of actions must be performed including:
  • stopping the ovirt-engine service,
  • downloading and installing the updated packages,
  • backing up and updating the database,
  • performing post installation configuration, and
  • restarting the ovirt-engine service.
A script is included to perform these actions for you in an automated fashion. Active virtualization hosts are not upgraded by this process and must be updated separately. As a result the virtual machines running upon them are not affected. All commands in this task must be run while logged into the system hosting Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager as the root user.

Procedure 15.2. Updating Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager

  1. Run the yum command to update the rhevm-setup package.
    # yum update rhevm-setup
  2. Run the rhevm-upgrade command to update the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.
    # rhevm-upgrade

    Note

    Be aware that the upgrade process may take some time. Allow time for the upgrade process to complete and do not stop it once initiated. Once the upgrade has been completed you will also be instructed to separately upgrade the data warehouse and reports functionality. These additional steps are only required if these optional packages are installed.
Result
You have successfully updated Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.

15.1.3. Updating Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Reports

Summary
The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Reports must be updated separately to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. This task provides instructions for updating both the history database and the reporting engine. You must run all commands in this task while logged into the system hosting Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager as the root user.

Procedure 15.3. Updating Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Reports

  1. Use the yum command to update the rhevm-reports and rhevm-dwh packages.
    # yum update -y rhevm-reports rhevm-dwh
  2. Run the rhevm-dwh-setup command to update the rhevm_history database.
    # rhevm-dwh-setup
  3. Run the rhevm-reports-setup command to update the reporting engine.
    # rhevm-reports-setup
Result
You have successfully updated the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Reports.

15.1.4. Updating Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors

Summary
Updating Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors involves reinstalling the Hypervisor with a newer version of the Hypervisor ISO image. This includes stopping and restarting the Hypervisor. Virtual machines are automatically migrated to a different host, as a result it is recommended that Hypervisor updates are performed at a time when the host's usage is relatively low.
It is recommended that administrators update Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors regularly. Important bug fixes and security updates are included in updates. Hypervisors which are not up to date may be a security risk.

Warning

Upgrading Hypervisor hosts involves shutting down, deactivating guests, and restarting the physical server. If any virtual machines are running on the Hypervisor, all data and configuration details may be destroyed if they are not shut down. Upgrading Hypervisors must be carefully planned and executed with care and consideration.

Important

Ensure that the cluster contains more than one host before performing an upgrade. Do not attempt to re-install or upgrade all the hosts at the same time, as one host must remain available to perform Storage Pool Manager (SPM) tasks.

Procedure 15.4. Updating Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors

  1. Log in to the system hosting Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager as the root user.
  2. Ensure that:
    • the system is subscribed to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization entitlement — if using certificate-based Red Hat Network; or
    • the system is subscribed to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor (v.6 x86-64) (labeled rhel-x86_64-server-6-rhevh) — if using classic Red Hat Network.
  3. Run the yum command with the update rhev-hypervisor parameters to ensure that you have the most recent version of the rhev-hypervisor package installed.
    # yum update rhev-hypervisor
  4. Use your web browser to log in to the Administration Portal as a Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization administrative user.
  5. Click the Hosts tab, and then select the host that you intend to upgrade. If the host is not displayed, or the list of hosts is too long to filter visually, perform a search to locate the host.
  6. With the host selected, click the General tab on the Details pane.
    • If the host requires updating, an alert message indicates that a new version of the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor is available.
    • If the host does not require updating, no alert message is displayed and no further action is required.
  7. Ensure the host remains selected and click the Maintenance button, if the host is not already in maintenance mode. This will cause any virtual machines running on the host to be migrated to other hosts. If the host is the SPM, this function will be moved to another host. The status of the host changes as it enters maintenance mode. When the host status is Maintenance, the message in the general tab changes, providing you with a link which when clicked will re-install or upgrade the host.
  8. Ensure that the host remains selected, and that you are on the General tab of the the Details pane. Click the Upgrade link. The Install Host dialog box displays.
  9. Select rhev-hypervisor.iso, which is symbolically linked to the most recent hypervisor image.
  10. Click OK to update and re-install the host. The dialog closes, the details of the host are updated in the Hosts tab, and the status changes.
    The host status will transition through these stages:
    • Installing,
    • Reboot,
    • Non Responsive, and
    • Up.
    These are all expected, and each stage will take some time.
  11. Once successfully updated, the host displays a status of Up. Any virtual machines that were migrated off the host, are at this point able to be migrated back to it.
Result
You have successfully updated a Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor. Repeat these steps for each Hypervisor in the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment.

15.1.5. Updating Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization Hosts

Summary
Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtualization hosts are updated the same way as regular Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems, using yum. It is highly recommended that you use yum to update your systems regularly, to ensure timely application of security and bug fixes. All steps in this task must be run while logged into the Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtualization host as the root user.

Procedure 15.5. Updating Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization Hosts

  • Run the yum command with the update parameter on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtualization host to update all installed packages.
    # yum update
Result
You have successfully updated the Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtualization host. Repeat this process for each Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtualization host in the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment.

15.2. Upgrading to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.1

15.2.1. Upgrading to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager 3.1

Summary
Upgrading Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager to version 3.1 is performed using the rhevm-upgrade command. Virtualization hosts, and the virtual machines running upon them, will continue to operate independently while the Manager is being upgraded. Once the Manager upgrade is complete you will be able to upgrade your hosts, if you haven't already, to the latest versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor.

Important

Refer to https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/articles/269333 for an up to date list of tips and considerations to be taken into account when upgrading to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.1.

Important

Users of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 2.2 must migrate to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.0 before attempting this upgrade. For information on migrating from Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 2.2 to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.0, refer to https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/techbriefs/migrating-red-hat-enterprise-virtualization-manager-version-22-30.

Note

In the event that the upgrade fails the rhevm-upgrade command will attempt to roll your Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager installation back to its previous state. Where this also fails detailed instructions for manually restoring the installation are displayed.

Procedure 15.6. Upgrading to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager 3.1

  1. Add JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 6 Subscription

    Ensure that the system is subscribed to the required channels and entitlements to recieve JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 6 packages. JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 6 is a required dependency of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager 3.1.
    Certificate-based Red Hat Network
    The JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 6 packages are provided by the JBoss Enterprise Application Platform entitlement in certificate-based Red Hat Network.
    Use the subscription-manager command to ensure that the system is subscribed to the JBoss Enterprise Application Platform entitlement.
    # subscription-manager list
    Red Hat Network Classic
    The JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 6 packages are provided by the JBoss Application Platform (v 6) for 6Server x86_64 channel, also referred to as jbappplatform-6-x86_64-server-6-rpm, in Red Hat Network Classic. The Channel Entitlement Name for this channel is JBoss Enterprise Application Platform (v 4, zip format).
    Use the rhn-channel command, or the Red Hat Network Web Interface, to subscribe to the JBoss Application Platform (v 6) for 6Server x86_64 channel.
  2. Add Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.1 Subscription

    Ensure that the system is subscribed to the required channels and entitlements to recieve Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager 3.1 packages. This procedure assumes that the system is already subscribed to required channels and entitlements to receive Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.0 packages. These must also be available to complete the upgrade process.
    Certificate-based Red Hat Network
    The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.1 packages are provided by the rhel-6-server-rhevm-3.1-rpms repository associated with the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization entitlement. Use the yum-config-manager command to enable the repository in your yum configuration. The yum-config-manager command must be run while logged in as the root user.
    # yum-config-manager --enablerepo=rhel-6-server-rhevm-3.1-rpms
    Red Hat Network Classic
    The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.1 packages are provided by the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager (v.3.1 x86_64) channel, also referred to as rhel-x86_64-server-6-rhevm-3.1 in Red Hat Network Classic.
    Use the rhn-channel command, or the Red Hat Network Web Interface, to subscribe to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager (v.3.1 x86_64) channel.
  3. Update the rhevm-setup Package

    To ensure that you have the most recent version of the rhevm-upgrade command installed you must update the rhevm-setup package. Log in as the root user and use yum to update the rhevm-setup package.
    # yum update rhevm-setup
  4. Run the rhevm-upgrade Command

    To upgrade Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager run the rhevm-upgrade command. You must be logged in as the root user to run this command.
    # rhevm-upgrade
    Loaded plugins: product-id, rhnplugin
    Info: RHEV Manager 3.0 to 3.1 upgrade detected
    Checking pre-upgrade conditions...(This may take several minutes)
    
  5. If the ipa-server package is installed then an error message is displayed. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager 3.1 does not support installation on the same machine as Idenity, Policy, Audit (IPA).
    Error: IPA was found to be installed on this machine. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager 3.1 does not support installing IPA on the same machine. Please remove ipa packages before you continue.
    
    To resolve this issue you must migrate the IPA configuration to another system before re-attempting the upgrade. For further information see https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/articles/233143.
  6. A list of packages that depend on JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 5 is displayed. These packages must be removed to install JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 6, required by Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager 3.1.
     Warning: the following packages will be removed if you proceed with the upgrade:
    
        * objectweb-asm
    
     Would you like to proceed? (yes|no):
    
    You must enter yes to proceed with the upgrade, removing the listed packages.
Result
Your Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager installation has now been upgraded. To take full advantage of all Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.1 features you must also:
  • Ensure that all of your virtualization hosts are up to date and running the most recent Red Hat Enterprise Linux packages or Hypervisor images.
  • Change all of your clusters to use compatibility version 3.1.
  • Change all of your data centers to use compatibility version 3.1.

15.2.2. Changing the Cluster Compatibility Version

Summary
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization clusters have a compatibility version. The compatibility version indicates the version of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization that the cluster is intended to be compatible with. All hosts in the cluster must support the desired compatibility level.

Procedure 15.7. Changing the Cluster Compatibility Version

  1. Log in to the Administration Portal as the administrative user. By default this is the admin user.
  2. Click the Clusters tab.
  3. Select the cluster that you wish to change from the list displayed. If the list of clusters is too long to filter visually then perform a search to locate the desired cluster.
  4. Click the Edit button.
  5. Change the Compatibility Version to the desired value.
  6. Click OK.
Result
You have updated the compatibility version of the cluster. Once you have updated the compatibility version of all clusters in a data center, then you are also able to change the compatibility version of the data center itself.

15.2.3. Changing the Data Center Compatibility Version

Summary
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization data centers have a compatibility version. The compatibility version indicates the version of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization that the data center is intended to be compatible with. All clusters in the data center must support the desired compatibility level.

Procedure 15.8. Changing the Data Center Compatibility Version

  1. Log in to the Administration Portal as the administrative user. By default this is the admin user.
  2. Click the Data Centers tab.
  3. Select the data center that you wish to change from the list displayed. If the list of data centers is too long to filter visually then perform a search to locate the desired data center.
  4. Click the Edit button.
  5. Change the Compatibility Version to the desired value.
  6. Click OK.
Result
You have updated the compatibility version of the data center.

Chapter 16. Reports, History Database Reports, and Dashboards

16.1. Reports

16.1.1. Reports

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization includes a comprehensive management history database, which any reporting application utilizes to generate a range of reports at data center, cluster and host levels. This chapter provides information to enable you to set up queries against the history database and generate reports.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager uses PostgreSQL 8.4.12 as a database platform to store information about the state of the virtualization environment, its configuration and performance. At install time, Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager creates a PostgreSQL database called engine.
Installing the rhevm-dwh package creates a second database called ovirt_engine_history, which contains historical configuration information and statistical metrics collected every minute over time from the engine operational database. Tracking the changes to the database provides information on the objects in the database, enabling the user to analyze activity, enhance performance, and resolve difficulties.

Warning

The replication of data in the ovirt_engine_history database is performed by the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Extract Transform Load Service, ovirt-engine-dwhd. The service is based on Talend Open Studio, a data integration tool. This service is configured to start automatically during the data warehouse package setup. It is a Java program responsible for extracting data from the engine database, transforming the data to the history database standard and loading it to the ovirt_engine_history database.
The ovirt-engine-dwhd service must not be stopped.
The ovirt_engine_history database schema changes over time. The database includes a set of database views to provide a supported, versioned API with a consistent structure. A view is a virtual table composed of the result set of a database query. The database stores the definition of a view as a SELECT statement. The result of the SELECT statement populates the virtual table that the view returns. A user references the view name in PL/PGSQL statements the same way a table is referenced.

16.1.2. JasperReports and JasperServer in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization provides a customized implementation of JasperServer, which allows web-based access to a range of pre-configured reports and dashboards, plus the ability to create ad hoc reports.
JasperReports is an open source reporting tool, capable of being embedded in Java-based applications. It produces reports which can be rendered to screen, printed, or exported to a variety of formats including PDF, Excel, CSV, Word, RTF, Flash, ODT and ODS. JasperReports integrates with JasperServer, an open source reporting server for JasperReports. Using JasperServer, reports built in JasperReports can be accessed via a web interface.

16.1.3. Online Help for JasperReports

JasperServer provides extensive online help. Use the online help to find information on common administration tasks and the JasperServer product in general. This section provides information on the reports available for Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization and the customizations that integrate JasperServer with Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization. To navigate to the online help facility, click on Help in the top right-hand corner of the browser.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports online help

Figure 16.1. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports online help


16.1.4. Jasper Reports System Requirements

The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Reports tool supports the following browsers:
  • In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.7 - Firefox 10 or later
  • In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 - Firefox 10 or later
  • In Windows 7 - Internet Explorer 9
  • In Windows Server 2008 - Internet Explorer 9

16.1.5. Users in the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports Portal

The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports Portal does not use your directory server for authentication.
By default, there are two Reports Portal users: rhevm-admin and superuser. The passwords for these users were set during the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports. Generally, additional users must be added manually.
When a domain user accesses the Reports Portal from within the Administration Portal using right-click reporting, a corresponding user is automatically created in the Reports Portal using the user's domain user name. This user cannot login to the Reports Portal directly, but is able to view all the reports accessible from the Administration portal.

16.1.6. Logging in to Access the Reports Portal

You were prompted to set a password for the superuser and rhevm-admin accounts when you installed Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports does not provide default passwords.
To access reports, navigate to the reports portal at: https://YOUR.MANAGER.URL/rhevm-reports/login.html. A login screen for Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports is displayed.

Note

You can also access the reports portal from your Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization landing page.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports login screen

Figure 16.2. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports login screen


Enter your login credentials. If this is the first time you are connecting to the reports portal, log in as ovirt-user. Click the Login button.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports main screen

Figure 16.3. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports main screen


The Reports Portal does not use your directory service for authentication. By default, the Reports Portal includes two users: rhevm-admin and superuser. Generally, additional users need to be created within the Reports Portal.

16.1.7. Accessing the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports User Management Menu

Summary
You can add additional reports users, giving them access to the reports portal. Complete this procedure as a user with sufficient permissions to manage other users, like rhevm-admin.
  1. In to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization reports portal, hover over the Manage button on the top menu bar.
  2. Click on Users in the drop-down menu that appears to access the Manage Users interface. It contains three panes:
    • Organizations
    • Users
    • Properties
  3. Select a user in the Users pane by clicking on the name of the user. Information about the user displays in the Properties pane.
  4. Click the Edit button at the bottom of the user's Properties pane.
    The Properties pane contains these fields:
    • User name,
    • User ID,
    • Email,
    • Password (required),
    • Confirm Password (required),
    • A User is enabled check box,
    • A The user is defined externally check box,
    • A list of Roles Available to the user, and
    • A list of Roles Assigned to the user.
  5. Click the Save button.
Result
You have given more users permissions to access the reports portal.

16.1.8. Reports Portal User Roles

There are three roles, each of which provides a different level of permissions:
  1. ROLE_ADMINISTRATOR - Can create/edit/delete reports, dashboards, ad hoc reports, and manage the server.
  2. ROLE_USER - Can create/edit/delete ad hoc reports and view reports and dashboards.
  3. ROLE_ANONYMOUS - Can log in and look at reports and dashboards.
Other roles can be created and assigned. For information on how to create and assign other roles, detailed information about user management, and other system functions, please refer to the JasperServer documentation.
JasperReports user roles

Figure 16.4. JasperReports user roles


16.1.9. Navigating Reports and Dashboards

Select the View Reports button on the reports portal home page.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports home screen

Figure 16.5. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports home screen


You can use the smaller Home ( ) button in the navigation bar at the top of the reports portal to return to this page.
Use the Filter pane on the left of the screen to select a subset of reports you would like to view.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports Filter pane

Figure 16.6. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports Filter pane


You can use filters to select from the available reports.

Table 16.1. Navigation Filters

Filter Description
Available Resources Select from All, Modified by me, or Viewed by me.
Resource type Choose from the types of available resources including Reports, Ad Hoc views, Dashboards, and more.
Timeframe Choose a time frame you'd like to see information from.
Schedule Filter by data collection schedule.

16.1.10. Report Parameters

Report parameters are user-defined at report run time. Report parameters define the scope and timeframe of the report. When running a report, you are prompted for the parameters applicable to the report you selected.
To view the required parameters for a report, click the report in the reports list.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports - Reports List

Figure 16.7. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports - Reports List


Select a report from the list to display the Input Controls window. The Input Controls window consists of a number of drop-down menus allow you to define the report's parameters.

Note

The dialog is contextual and differs from report to report. Parameters marked with an asterisk (*) are required.
Report Parameter Selection

Figure 16.8. Report Parameter Selection


Cascading parameters
Many report parameters are cascading input fields. This means the selection made for one parameter changes the options available for another parameter. The Data Center and Cluster parameters are cascading. Once a user selects a data center, only clusters within that data center are available for selection. Similarly, if a user selects a cluster, the Host Type field updates to show only host types that exist in the selected cluster. Cascading parameters filter out objects that do not contain child objects relevant to the report. For example, a report pertaining to virtual machines removes the selection of clusters that do not contain virtual machines. A report pertaining to both virtual machines and hosts only provides a selection from clusters containing both virtual machines and hosts.
Deleted objects
Objects deleted (removed) from the system are still recorded in the reporting history database. Select deleted objects, such as clusters, data centers and hosts, as values for report parameters if required. The bottom of the parameter options list shows deleted objects, which are suffixed with the date of removal from the system.
You can toggle whether deleted entries are shown in the report using the Show Deleted Entities? field in the Input Controls window.

16.1.11. Right-click Reporting Integration with the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Administration Portal

The Administration portal provides integrated access to reports on most resources.
To access a report on a given resource, select the resource in the Administration Portal. Right-click the resource to show a context sensitive menu, and select the Show Report option. This expands to show all of the available reports on the selected resource.
Right-click Reporting

Figure 16.9. Right-click Reporting


Alternatively, you can select a given resource in the Administration Portal. If there are reports on that resource, the Show Report action becomes available above the results pane.
Alternative to Right-click Reporting

Figure 16.10. Alternative to Right-click Reporting


16.1.12. Executive Reports

16.1.12.1. Executive reports: active virtual machines by operating system

The Active Virtual Machines by OS report shows a summary of the number of active virtual machines in a given time period, broken down by operating system. The following parameters are provided to run this report:

Table 16.2. Active Virtual Machines by OS Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The report includes only virtual machines in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain virtual machines.
Cluster The report only includes virtual machines in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the report includes all virtual machines in the selected data center.
VM Type The report only includes virtual machines of the selected type. Possible types are Server and Desktop. The options list shows only types that exist in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the report includes all virtual machine types.

16.1.12.2. Executive Reports: Cluster Capacity Versus Usage

The Cluster Capacity Vs Usage report shows the relationship between system capacity and usage (workload) over a given time period. Capacity is expressed in terms of CPU cores and physical memory, while usage is expressed as vCPUs and virtual machine memory. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.3. Cluster Capacity Vs Usage Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list contains only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The report only includes the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the report includes all clusters in the selected data center.

16.1.12.3. Executive Reports: Host Operating System Break Down

The Host OS Break Down report indicates the number of hosts running each operating system version over a given time period. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.4. Host OS Break Down Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The report includes only hosts in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the report includes all hosts in the selected data center.

16.1.12.4. Executive Reports: Summary of Host Usage Resources

The Summary of Host Usage Resources report shows a scatter plot of average host resource utilization for a given time period in terms of CPU and memory usage. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.5. Summary of Host Usage Resources Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The report includes only hosts in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the report includes all hosts in the selected data center.

16.1.13. Inventory Reports

16.1.13.1. Inventory Reports: Hosts Inventory

The Hosts Inventory report shows a list of all hosts in the selected data center and cluster. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.6. Hosts Inventory Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The report includes only hosts in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the report includes all hosts in the selected data center.
Host Type The report includes only hosts of the selected type. The options list shows only host types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the report includes all host types.

16.1.13.2. Inventory Reports: Storage Domain Over Time

The Storage Domain Size Over Time report shows a line graph contrasting the total available and total used space for a single storage domain over time for a given period. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.7. Storage Domain Size Over Time Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. The list of options for the Storage Domain name parameter includes only storage domains that were attached during the specified period.
Data Center The options list for the Storage Domain Name parameter shows only storage domains in this selected data center.
Storage Type The options list for the Storage Domain Name parameter shows only storage domains of this selected type.
Storage Domain Name The report refers to the storage domain selected. A report is only for a single storage domain and the user must select a storage domain. The list of options shows only storage domains that were attached to the data center during the selected period.

16.1.13.3. Inventory Reports: Virtual Machines Inventory

The Virtual Machines Inventory report shows a list of all virtual machines in the selected data center and cluster. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.8. Virtual Machines Inventory Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The report includes only virtual machines in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the report includes all virtual machines in the selected data center.
VM Type The report includes only virtual machines of the selected type. The options list shows only virtual machine types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the report includes all virtual machine types.

16.1.14. Service Level Reports

16.1.14.1. Service Level Reports: Cluster Host Uptime

The Cluster Host Uptime report shows the weighted average uptime of hosts within a cluster for a given period of time. This report also provides a table listing the total planned (maintenance) and unplanned down time for each host. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.9. Cluster Host Uptime Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The report includes only hosts in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the report includes all hosts in the selected data center.
Host Type The report includes only hosts of the selected type. The options list shows only host types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the report includes all host types.

16.1.14.2. Service Level Reports: Cluster Quality of Service for Hosts

The Cluster Quality of Services - Hosts report shows the amount of time hosts sustain load above a specified threshold for a given time period. Load is defined in terms of CPU usage percent and memory usage percent. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.10. Cluster Quality of Service - Hosts Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The report includes only hosts in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the report includes all hosts in the selected data center.
Host Type The report includes only hosts of the selected type. The options list shows only host types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the report includes all host types.
CPU Threshold The report measures the quality of service as the amount of time hosts sustain load above a given threshold. The CPU Threshold defines a load threshold as a percentage of total CPU usage on the host. The load is measured by one-minute samples, averaged over an hour. The report therefore shows sustained load, not short term peaks. A CPU Threshold of 60 per cent is a suggested starting point to produce a meaningful quality of service report.
Memory Threshold The report measures the quality of service as the amount of time hosts sustain load above a given threshold. The Memory Threshold defines a load threshold as a percentage of total memory usage on the host. The load is measured by one-minute samples, averaged over an hour. The report therefore shows sustained load, not short term peaks. A Memory Threshold of 60 per cent is a suggested starting point to produce a meaningful quality of service report.

16.1.14.3. Service Level Reports: Cluster Quality of Service for Virtual Machines

The Cluster Quality of Service - Virtual Machines report shows the amount of time virtual machines sustain load above a specified threshold for a given time period. Load is defined in terms of CPU usage percent and memory usage percent. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.11. Cluster Quality of Service - Virtual Machines Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The report includes only virtual machines in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the report includes all virtual machines in the selected data center.
VM Type The report includes only virtual machines of the selected type. The options list shows only virtual machine types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the report includes all virtual machine types.
CPU Threshold The report measures quality of service as the amount of time virtual machines sustain load above a given threshold. The CPU Threshold defines a load threshold as a percentage of total CPU usage on the virtual machine. The load is measured by one-minute samples, averaged over an hour. The report therefore shows sustained load, not short term peaks. A CPU Threshold of 60 per cent is a suggested starting point to produce a meaningful quality of service report.
Memory Threshold The reports measures quality of service as the amount of time virtual machines sustain load above a given threshold. The Memory Threshold defines a load threshold as a percentage of total memory usage on the virtual machine. The load is measured by one-minute samples, averaged over an hour. The report therefore shows sustained load, not short term peaks. A Memory Threshold of 60 per cent is a suggested starting point to produce a meaningful quality of service report.

16.1.14.4. Service Level Reports: Single Host Uptime

The Single Host Uptime report shows the total proportion of uptime, planned downtime and unplanned downtime for a single host. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.12. Single Host Uptime Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The list of options for the Host Name parameter includes only hosts in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the list of options for the Host Name parameter includes all hosts in the selected data center.
Host Type The list of options for the Host Name parameter includes only hosts of the selected type. The options list shows only host types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the list of options for the Host Name parameter includes all host types.
Host Name The report refers to the host selected. A report is only for a single host and a user must select a host.

16.1.14.5. Service Level Reports: Top 10 Downtime Hosts

The Top 10 Downtime Hosts report shows the total proportion of uptime, planned downtime and unplanned downtime for the 10 hosts with the greatest amount of downtime. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.13. Top 10 Downtime Hosts Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list contains only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The report includes only hosts in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the report includes all hosts in the selected data center.
Host Type The report includes only hosts of the selected type. The options list shows only host types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the report includes all host types.

16.1.14.6. Service Level Reports: High Availability Virtual Servers Uptime

The High Availability Virtual Servers Uptime report shows the weighted average uptime of high availability virtual servers within a cluster for a given period of time. The report also provides a table listing the total uptime and unplanned down time for each virtual server. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.14. High Availability Virtual Servers Uptime Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The report includes only virtual servers in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the report includes all virtual servers in the selected data center.

16.1.15. Trend Reports

16.1.15.1. Trend Reports: Five Least Utilized Hosts Over Time

The Five Least Utilized Hosts (Over Time) report shows the weighted average daily peak load, in terms of CPU and memory usage, for the five hosts with the lowest load factor for a given period of time. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.15. Five Least Utilized Hosts (Over Time) Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The report includes only hosts in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the report includes all hosts in the selected data center.
Host Type The report includes only hosts of the selected type. The options list shows only host types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the report includes all host types.

16.1.15.2. Trend Reports: Five Least Utilized Virtual Machines Over Time

The Five Least Utilized Virtual Machines (Over Time) report shows the weighted average daily peak load, in terms of CPU and memory usage, for the five virtual machines with the lowest load factor for a given period of time. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.16. Five Least Utilized Virtual Machines (Over Time) Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The report includes only virtual machines in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the report includes all virtual machines in the selected data center.
VM Type The report includes only virtual machines of the selected type. The options list shows only virtual machine types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the report includes all virtual machine types.

16.1.15.3. Trend Reports: Five Most Utilized Hosts Over Time

The Five Most Utilized Hosts (Over Time) report shows the weighted average daily peak load, in terms of CPU and memory usage, for the five hosts with the highest load factor for a given period of time. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.17. Five Most Utilized Hosts (Over Time) Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The report includes only hosts in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the report includes all hosts in the selected data center.
Host Type The report includes only hosts of the selected type. The options list shows only host types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the report includes all host types.

16.1.15.4. Trend Reports: Five Most Utilized Virtual Machines Over Time

The Five Most Utilized Virtual Machines (Over Time) report shows the weighted average daily peak load, in terms of CPU and memory usage, for the five virtual machines with the highest load factor for a given period of time. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.18. Five Most Utilized Virtual Machines (Over Time) Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers which contain clusters.
Cluster The report includes only virtual machines in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the report includes all virtual machines in the selected data center.
VM Type The report includes only virtual machines of the selected type. The options list shows only virtual machine types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the report includes all virtual machine types.

16.1.15.5. Trend Reports: Multiple Hosts Resource Usage Over Time

The Multiple Hosts Resource Usage (Over Time) report shows the daily peak load, in terms of CPU and memory usage, for up to five selected hosts over a given period of time. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.19. Multiple Hosts Resource Usage (Over Time) Parameters

Parameter Description
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The list of options for the Host List parameter includes only hosts in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the list of options for the Host List parameter includes all hosts in the selected data center.
Host Type The list of options for the Host List parameter includes only hosts of the selected type. The options list shows only host types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the list of options for the Host List parameter includes all host types.
Host List The report includes all hosts selected in the host list. Select any number of hosts up to a maximum of five.

16.1.15.6. Trend Reports: Multiple Virtual Machines Resource Usage Over Time

The Multiple Virtual Machines Resource Usage (Over Time) report shows the daily peak load, in terms of CPU and memory usage, for up to five selected virtual machines over a given period of time. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.20. Multiple Virtual Machines Resource Usage (Over Time) Parameters

Parameter Description
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The list of options for the VM List parameter include only virtual machines in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the list of options for the VM List parameter includes all virtual machines in the selected data center.
VM Type The list of options for the VM List parameter includes only virtual machines of the selected type. The options list shows only virtual machine types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the list of options for the VM List parameter includes all virtual machine types.
VM List The report includes all virtual machines selected in the virtual machine list. Select any number of virtual machines up to a maximum of five.

16.1.15.7. Trend Reports: Single Host Resource Usage by Days of the Week

The Single Host Resource Usage (Days of Week) report shows various resource utilization metrics for a single host over a given period of time and broken down by day of the week. The metrics include CPU usage, memory usage, number of active virtual machines and network usage. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.21. Single Host Resource Usage (Days of Week) Parameters

Parameter Description
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The list of options for the Host Name parameter includes only hosts in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the list of options for the Host Name parameter includes all hosts in the selected data center.
Host Type The list of options for the Host Name parameter includes only hosts of the selected type. The options list shows only host types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the list of options for the Host Name parameter includes all host types.
Host Name The report refers to the host selected. A report is only for a single host and the user must select a host.

16.1.15.8. Trend Reports: Single Host Resource Usage by Hour of the Day

The Single Host Resource Usage (Hour of Day) report shows a variety of resource utilization metrics for a single host over a given period of time, broken down by hour of the day (0-23). The metrics include CPU usage, memory usage, number of active virtual machines and network usage. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.22. Single Host Resource Usage (Hour of Day) Parameters

Parameter Description
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The list of options for the Host Name parameter includes only hosts in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the list of options for the Host Name parameter includes all hosts in the selected data center.
Host Type Only hosts of the selected type will be included in the list of options for the Host Name parameter. The options list shows only host types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the list of options for the Host Name parameter includes all host types.
Host Name The report refers to the host selected. A report is only for a single host and the user must select a host.

16.1.15.9. Trend Reports: Single Virtual Machine Resource Usage by Day of the Week

The Single Virtual Machine Resources (Days of Week) report shows a variety of resource utilization metrics for a single virtual machine over a given period of time, broken down by day of the week. The metrics include CPU usage, memory usage, disk usage and network usage. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.23. Single Virtual Machine Resources (Days of Week) Parameters

Parameter Description
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The list of options for the VM Name parameter includes only virtual machines in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the list of options for the VM Name parameter includes all virtual machines in the selected data center.
VM Type The list of options for the VM Name parameter includes only virtual machines of the selected type. The options list shows only virtual machine types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the list of options for the VM Name parameter includes all virtual machine types.
VM Name The report refers to the virtual machine selected. A report is only for a single virtual machine and the user must select a virtual machine.

16.1.15.10. Trend Reports: Single Virtual Machine Resource Usage by Hour of the Day

The Single Virtual Machine Resources (Hour of Day) report shows a variety of resource utilization metrics for a single virtual machine over a given period of time, broken down by hour of the day (0-23). The metrics include CPU usage, memory usage, disk usage and network usage. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.24. Single Virtual Machine Resources (Hour of Day) Parameters

Parameter Description
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers which contain clusters.
Cluster The list of options for the VM Name parameter includes only virtual machines in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the list of options for the VM Name parameter includes all virtual machines in the selected data center.
VM Type The list of options for the VM Name parameter includes only virtual machines of the selected type. The options list shows only virtual machine types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the list of options for the VM Name parameter includes all virtual machine types.
VM Name The report refers to the virtual machine selected. A report is only for a single virtual machine and the user must select a virtual machine.

16.1.15.11. Trend Reports: Single Virtual Machine Resource Usage Over Time

The Single Virtual Machine Resources (Over Time) report shows a variety of resource utilization metrics for a single virtual machine over a given period of time. The metrics include CPU usage, memory usage, disk usage and network usage. The following parameters must be provided to run this report:

Table 16.25. Single Virtual Machine Resources (Over Time) Parameters

Parameter Description
Period Range The report is for the period range selected. Daily reports cover a single day. Monthly reports cover a single month. Quarterly reports cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter. Yearly reports cover a year, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The report covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. Daily period ranges pass in one day increments. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month. A yearly period range also starts on the selected month.
Data Center The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center. The options list shows only data centers that contain clusters.
Cluster The list of options for the VM Name parameter includes only virtual machines in the selected cluster. The options list shows only clusters in the selected data center. If All is selected, the list of options for the VM Name parameter includes all virtual machines in the selected data center.
VM Type The list of options for the VM Name parameter lists only virtual machines of the selected type. The options list shows only virtual machine types present in the selected data center and cluster. If All is selected, the list of options for the VM Name parameter includes all virtual machine types.
VM Name The report refers to the virtual machine selected. A report is only for a single virtual machine and the user must select a virtual machine.

16.1.16. Ad Hoc Reports

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports provides you with a tool to create customized ad hoc reports. This tool is a component of JasperServer. To create an Ad Hoc Report as an administrator, navigate to the Create drop-down menu on the top menu bar and select Ad Hoc View to open the Data Chooser: Source window.
Create Ad Hoc Report - Administrator's View

Figure 16.11. Create Ad Hoc Report - Administrator's View


The Working with the Ad Hoc Editor section of the online help explains the ad hoc report interface in detail.

16.1.17. Reports Schema: Tag History and ENUM Views

This section describes the tag history and ENUM views available to the user for querying and generating reports. Latest tag views show only living tags relations and the latest details version.

delete_date and detach_date do not appear for living entities

delete_date and detach_date do not appear in latest views because these views provide the latest configuration of living entities, which, by definition, have not been deleted.
Tag relations and latest tag relations history views
Tag relations history in the system.

Table 16.26. tag_and_ENUM_Views_table_v3_1_tag_relations_history_view\v3_1_latest_tag_relations_history_view"

Name Type Description
history_id integer The unique ID of this row in the table.
entity_id uuid Unique ID of the entity or tag in the system.
entity_type smallint
  • 2 - VM
  • 3 - Host
  • 5 - VM pool
  • 18 - Tag
parent_id uuid Unique ID of the entity or tag in the system.
attach_date timestamp with time zone The date the entity or tag was attached to the entity or tag.
detach_date timestamp with time zone The date the entity or tag was detached from the entity or tag.

Tag details and latest tag details views
Tag details history in the system.

Table 16.27. v3_1_tag_details_view\v3_1_latest_tag_details_view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The unique ID of this row in the table.
tag_id uuid Unique ID of the tag in the system.
tag_name varchar(50) Name of the tag, as displayed in the tag tree.
tag_description varchar(4000) Description of the tag, as displayed in the edit dialog.
tag_path varchar(4000) The path to the tag in the tree.
tag_level smallint The tag level in the tree.
create_date timestamp with time zone The date this tag was added to the system.
update_date timestamp with time zone The date this tag was changed in the system.
delete_date timestamp with time zone The date this tag was deleted from the system.

Enum translator view
The ENUM table is used to easily translate column numeric types to their meanings and lists ENUM values for columns in the history database.

Table 16.28. v3_1_enum_translator_view

Name Type Description
enum_type varchar(40) The type of ENUM.
enum_key smallint The key of the ENUM.
value varchar(40) The value of the ENUM.

16.2. History Database Reports

16.2.1. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization History Database

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Reports uses data from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization History Database (called ovirt_engine_history) which tracks the engine database over time.

Important

Sufficient data must exist in the history database to produce meaningful reports. Most reports use values aggregated on a daily basis. Meaningful reports can only be produced if data for at least several days is available. In particular, because trend reports are designed to highlight long term trends in the system, a sufficient history is required to highlight meaningful trends.

16.2.2. Tracking Configuration History

The ETL service, ovirt-engine-dwhd, tracks three types of changes:
  • A new entity is added to the engine database - the ETL Service replicates the change to the ovirt_engine_history database as a new entry.
  • An existing entity is updated - the ETL Service replicates the change to the ovirt_engine_history database as a new entry.
  • An entity is removed from the engine database - A new entry in the ovirt_engine_history database flags the corresponding entity as removed. Removed entities are only flagged as removed. To maintain correctness of historical reports and representations, they are not physically removed.
The configuration tables in the ovirt_engine_history database differ from the corresponding tables in the engine database in several ways. The most apparent difference is they contain fewer configuration columns. This is because certain configuration items are less interesting to report than others and are not kept due to database size considerations. Also, columns from a few tables in the engine database appear in a single table in ovirt_engine_history and have different column names to make viewing data more convenient and comprehensible. All configuration tables contain:
  • a history_id to indicate the configuration version of the entity;
  • a create_date field to indicate when the entity was added to the system;
  • an update_date field to indicate when the entity was changed; and
  • a delete_date field to indicate the date the entity was removed from the system.

16.2.3. Recording Statistical History

The ETL service collects data into the statistical tables every minute. Data is stored for every minute of the past 24 hours. Minute-by-minute data more than two hours old is aggregated into hourly data and stored for two months. Hourly data more than two days old is aggregated into daily data and stored for five years.
Hourly data and daily data can be found in the hourly and daily tables.
Each statistical datum is kept in its respective aggregation level table: samples, hourly, and daily history. All history tables also contain a history_id column to uniquely identify rows. Tables reference the configuration version of a host in order to enable reports on statistics of an entity in relation to its past configuration.

16.2.4. Tracking Tag History

The ETL Service collects tag information as displayed in the Administration Portal every minute and stores this data in the tags historical tables. The ETL Service tracks five types of changes:
  • A tag is created in the Administration Portal - the ETL Service copies the tag details, position in the tag tree and relation to other objects in the tag tree.
  • A entity is attached to the tag tree in the Administration Portal - the ETL Service replicates the addition to the ovirt_engine_history database as a new entry.
  • A tag is updated - the ETL Service replicates the change of tag details to the ovirt_engine_history database as a new entry.
  • An entity or tag branch is removed from the Administration Portal - the ovirt_engine_history database flags the corresponding tag and relations as removed in new entries. Removed tags and relations are only flagged as removed or detached. In order to maintain correctness of historical reports and representations, they are not physically removed.
  • A tag branch is moved - the corresponding tag and relations are updated as new entries. Moved tags and relations are only flagged as updated. In order to maintain correctness of historical reports and representations, they are not physically updated.

16.2.5. Connecting to the History Database

The ovirt_engine_history database resides within the instance of PostgreSQL that the installer creates during Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager installation.
To connect to the database, use a PostgreSQL compatible query or reporting tool with the credentials used in Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager installation.

16.2.6. History Database Report Examples

The following examples provide an introduction to reports produced from queries to the ovirt_engine_history database. The database gives users access to a rich data set and enables a variety of complex reporting scenarios. These examples illustrate only basic reporting requirements.
Resource Utilization on a Single Host
This example produces a resource utilization report for a single host. The resource utilization report provides CPU- and memory-usage percentage information from readings taken at one-minute intervals. This kind of report is useful for gaining insight into the load factor of an individual host over a short period of time. The report is defined by the following SQL query. Ensure the values provided for the host_name and history_datetime components of the where clause are substituted with the appropriate values for your environment and that the latest configuration is in use.

Example 16.1. Report query for resource utilization on a single host


 select history_datetime as DateTime, cpu_usage_percent as CPU, memory_usage_percent as Memory
    from v3_1_host_configuration_view, v3_1_host_samples_history_view
    where v3_1_host_configuration_view.host_id = v3_1_host_samples_history_view.host_id
    and host_name = 'example.labname.abc.company.com'
    and v3_1_host_configuration_view.history_id in (select max(a.history_id)
    						from v3_1_host_configuration_view as a
    						where v3_1_host_configuration_view.host_id = a.host_id)
    and history_datetime >= '2011-07-01 18:45'
    and history_datetime <= '2011-07-31 21:45'


This query returns a table of data with one row per minute:

Table 16.29. Resource Utilization for a Single Host Example Data

DateTime CPU Memory
2010-07-01 18:45 42 0
2010-07-01 18:46 42 0
2010-07-01 18:47 42 1
2010-07-01 18:48 33 0
2010-07-01 18:49 33 0
2010-07-01 18:50 25 1

Compose the data into a graph or chart using third party data analysis and visualization tools such as OpenOffice.org Calc and Microsoft Excel. For this example, a line graph showing the utilization for a single host over time is a useful visualization. Figure 16.12, “Single host utilization line graph” was produced using the Chart Wizard tool in OpenOffice.org Calc.
Single host utilization line graph

Figure 16.12. Single host utilization line graph


Resource Utilization Across All Hosts
This example produces an aggregated resource utilization report across all hosts in the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager environment. Aggregated usage percentages for CPU and memory are shown with an hourly temporal resolution. This kind of report reveals utilization trends for the entire environment over a long period of time and is useful for capacity planning purposes. The following SQL query defines the report. Ensure the values provided for the history_datetime components of the where clause are substituted with appropriate values for your environment.

Example 16.2. Report query for resource utilization across all hosts


    select extract(hour from history_datetime) as Hour, avg(cpu_usage_percent) as CPU, avg(memory_usage_percent) as Memory
    from v3_1_host_hourly_history_view
    where history_datetime >= '2011-07-01' and history_datetime < '2011-07-31'
    group by extract(hour from history_datetime)
    order by extract(hour from history_datetime)


This query returns a table of data with one row per hour:

Table 16.30. Resource utilization across all hosts example data

Hour CPU Memory
0 39 40
1 38 38
2 37 32
3 35 45
4 35 37
5 36 37

Compose the data into a graph or chart using third party data analysis and visualization tools such as OpenOffice.org Calc and Microsoft Excel. For this example, a line graph showing the total system utilization over time is a useful visualization. Figure 16.13, “Total system utilization line graph” was produced using the Chart Wizard tool in OpenOffice.org Calc.
Total system utilization line graph

Figure 16.13. Total system utilization line graph


Tag Filter of Latest VM Configuration
This example filters the latest virtual machine configuration list using the history tag tables. This kind of report demonstrates usage of the tags tree built in the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager to filter lists. The following SQL query defines this report. This query uses a predefined function that receives tag history IDs and returns the tag path with latest names of the tags in the Administration Portal. Ensure the values provided for the function result components of the where clause are substituted with appropriate values for your environment.

Example 16.3. 

	SELECT vm_name
  FROM v3_1_latest_vm_configuration_view
		inner join v3_1_latest_tag_relations_history_view on (v3_1_latest_vm_configuration_view.vm_id = v3_1_latest_tag_relations_history_view.entity_id)
			inner join v3_1_latest_tag_details_view on (v3_1_latest_tag_details_view.tag_id = v3_1_latest_tag_relations_history_view.parent_id)
 WHERE getpathinnames(v3_1_latest_tag_details_view.history_id) like '/root/tlv%'

This query returns a table of data with all virtual machine names that are attached to this tag:

Table 16.31. Tag Filtering of Latest VM Configuration

vm_name
RHEL6-Pool-67
RHEL6-Pool-5
RHEL6-Pool-6
RHEL6-23

List Current Virtual Machines' Names, Types, and Operating Systems
This example produces a list of all current virtual machines names, types and operating systems in the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager environment. This kind of report demonstrates the usage of the ENUM table. The following SQL query defines this report:

Example 16.4. 

SELECT 	vm_name, vm_type_value.value as vm_type, os_value.value as operating_system
  FROM 	v3_1_latest_vm_configuration_view
		inner join v3_1_enum_translator_view as vm_type_value on (vm_type_value.enum_type = 'VM_TYPE' and v3_1_latest_vm_configuration_view.vm_type = vm_type_value.enum_key)
		inner join v3_1_enum_translator_view as os_value on (os_value.enum_type = 'OS_TYPE' and v3_1_latest_vm_configuration_view.operating_system = os_value.enum_key)

This query returns a table of virtual machines with OS and VM Type data:

Table 16.32. Current Virtual Machines' Names, Types, and Operating Systems

vm_name vm_type operating_system
RHEL6-Pool-2 Desktop RHEL 6 x64
RHEL6-Pool-1 Desktop RHEL 6 x64
RHEL6-Pool-3 Desktop RHEL 6 x64
RHEL6-Pool-4 Desktop RHEL 6 x64
RHEL6-Pool-5 Desktop RHEL 6 x64

Note

The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Technical Reference Guide provides a detailed reference that describes all the configuration and history views available for reporting.

16.2.7. Statistics History Views

16.2.7.1. Statistics History Views

This section describes the statistics history views available to the user for querying and generating reports.

16.2.7.2. Datacenter Daily History View

Historical statistics for each data center in the system.

Table 16.33. v3_1_datacenter_samples_history_view\v3_1_datacenter_hourly_history_view\v3_1_datacenter_daily_history_view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The unique ID of this row in the table.
history_datetime timestamp with time zone The timestamp of this history row (rounded to minute, hour, day as per the aggregation level).
datacenter_id uuid The unique ID of the data center.
datacenter_status smallint
  • -1 - Unknown Status (used only to indicate a problem with the ETL -- PLEASE NOTIFY SUPPORT)
  • 1 - Up
  • 2 - Maintenance
  • 3 - Problematic
minutes_in_status decimal The total number of minutes that the data center was in the status shown in the datacenter_status column for the aggregation period. For example, if a data center was up for 55 minutes and in maintenance mode for 5 minutes during an hour, two rows will show for this hour. One will have a datacenter_status of Up and minutes_in_status of 55, the other will have a datacenter_status of Maintenance and a minutes_in_status of 5.
datacenter_configuration_version integer The data center configuration version at the time of sample.

16.2.7.3. Storage Domain Daily History View

Historical statistics for each storage domain in the system.

Table 16.34. Storage domain hourly history, daily history, and samples history view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The unique ID of this row in the table.
history_datetime timestamp with time zone The timestamp of this history row (rounded to minute, hour, day as per the aggregation level).
storage_domain_id uuid Unique ID of the storage domain in the system.
available_disk_size_gb integer The total available (unused) capacity on the disk, expressed in gigabytes (GB).
used_disk_size_gb integer The total used capacity on the disk, expressed in gigabytes (GB).
storage_configuration_version integer The storage domain configuration version at the time of sample.

16.2.7.4. Host Hourly and Daily History Views

Historical statistics for each host in the system.

Table 16.35. v3_1_host_samples_history_view\v3_1_host_hourly_history_view\v3_1_host_daily_history_view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The unique ID of this row in the table.
history_datetime timestamp with time zone The timestamp of this history row (rounded to minute, hour, day as per the aggregation level).
host_id uuid Unique ID of the host in the system.
host_status smallint
  • -1 - Unknown Status (used only to indicate a problem with the ETL -- PLEASE NOTIFY SUPPORT)
  • 1 - Up
  • 2 - Maintenance
  • 3 - Problematic
minutes_in_status decimal The total number of minutes that the host was in the status shown in the status column for the aggregation period. For example, if a host was up for 55 minutes and down for 5 minutes during an hour, two rows will show for this hour. One will have a status of Up and minutes_in_status of 55, the other will have a status of Down and a minutes_in_status of 5.
memory_usage_percent smallint Percentage of used memory on the host.
max_memory_usage smallint Percentage of used memory on the host.
cpu_usage_percent smallint Used CPU percentage on the host.
max_cpu_usage smallint The maximum CPU usage for the aggregation period, expressed as a percentage. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
ksm_cpu_percent smallint CPU percentage ksm on the host is using.
max_ksm_cpu_percent smallint The maximum KSM usage for the aggregation period, expressed as a percentage. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
active_vms smallint The average number of active virtual machines for this aggregation.
max_active_vms smallint The maximum active number of virtual machines for the aggregation period. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
total_vms smallint The average number of all virtual machines on the host for this aggregation.
max_total_vms smallint The maximum total number of virtual machines for the aggregation period. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
total_vms_vcpus smallint Total number of VCPUs allocated to the host.
max_total_vms_vcpus smallint The maximum total virtual machine VCPU number for the aggregation period. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
cpu_load smallint The CPU load of the host.
max_cpu_load smallint The maximum CPU load for the aggregation period. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
system_cpu_usage_percent smallint Used CPU percentage on the host.
max_cpu_usage_percent smallint The maximum system CPU usage for the aggregation period, expressed as a percentage. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
user_cpu_usage_percent smallint Used user CPU percentage on the host.
max_user_cpu_usage_percent smallint The maximum user CPU usage for the aggregation period, expressed as a percentage. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
swap_used_mb integer Used swap size usage of the host in megabytes (MB).
max_swap_used_mb integer The maximum user swap size usage of the host for the aggregation period in megabytes (MB), expressed as a percentage. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
host_configuration_version integer The host configuration version at the time of sample.

16.2.7.5. Host Interface Hourly and Daily History Views

Historical statistics for each host network interface in the system.

Table 16.36. v3_1_host_interface_samples_history_view\v3_1_host_interface_hourly_history_view\v3_1_host_interface_daily_history_view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The unique ID of this row in the table.
history_datetime timestamp with time zone The timestamp of this history view (rounded to minute, hour, day as per the aggregation level).
host_interface_id uuid Unique identifier of the interface in the system.
receive_rate_percent smallint Used receive rate percentage on the host.
max_receive_rate_percent smallint The maximum receive rate for the aggregation period, expressed as a percentage. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
transmit_rate_percent smallint Used transmit rate percentage on the host.
max_transmit_rate_percent smallint The maximum transmit rate for the aggregation period, expressed as a percentage. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
host_interface_configuration_version integer The host interface configuration version at the time of sample.

16.2.7.6. Virtual Machine Hourly and Daily History Views

Historical statistics for the virtual machines in the system.

Table 16.37. v3_1_vm_samples_history_view\v3_1_vm_hourly_history_view\v3_1_vm_daily_history_view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The unique ID of this row in the table.
history_datetime timestamp with time zone The timestamp of this history row (rounded to minute, hour, day as per the aggregation level).
vm_id uuid Unique ID of the virtual machine in the system.
vm_status smallint
  • -1 - Unknown Status (used only to indicate problems with the ETL -- PLEASE NOTIFY SUPPORT)
  • 0 - Down
  • 1 - Up
  • 2 - Paused
  • 3 - Problematic
minutes_in_status decimal The total number of minutes that the virtual machine was in the status shown in the status column for the aggregation period. For example, if a virtual machine was up for 55 minutes and down for 5 minutes during an hour, two rows will show for this hour. One will have a status of Up and minutes_in_status, the other will have a status of Down and a minutes_in_status of 5.
cpu_usage_percent smallint The percentage of the CPU in use by the virtual machine.
max_cpu_usage smallint The maximum CPU usage for the aggregation period, expressed as a percentage. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
memory_usage_percent smallint Percentage of used memory in the virtual machine. The guest tools must be installed on the virtual machine for memory usage to be recorded.
max_memory_usage smallint The maximum memory usage for the aggregation period, expressed as a percentage. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value. The guest tools must be installed on the virtual machine for memory usage to be recorded.
user_cpu_usage_percent smallint Used user CPU percentage on the host.
max_user_cpu_usage_percent smallint The maximum user CPU usage for the aggregation period, expressed as a percentage. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregation, it is the maximum hourly average value.
system_cpu_usage_percent smallint Used system CPU percentage on the host.
max_system_cpu_usage_percent smallint The maximum system CPU usage for the aggregation period, expressed as a percentage. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
vm_ip varchar(255) The IP address of the first NIC. Only shown if the guest agent is installed.
current_user_name varchar(255) Name of user logged into the virtual machine console, if a guest agent is installed.
currently_running_on_host uuid The unique ID of the host the virtual machine is running on.
vm_configuration_version integer The virtual machine configuration version at the time of sample.
current_host_configuration_version integer The current host the virtual machine is running on.

16.2.7.7. Virtual Machine Interface Hourly and Daily History Views

Historical statistics for the virtual machine network interfaces in the system.

Table 16.38. v3_1_vm_interface_samples_history_view\v3_1_vm_interface_hourly_history_view\v3_1_vm_interface_daily_history_view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The unique ID of this row in the table.
history_datetime timestamp with time zone The timestamp of this history row (rounded to minute, hour, day as per the aggregation level).
vm_interface_id uuid Unique identifier of the interface in the system.
receive_rate_percent smallint Used receive rate percentage on the host.
max_receive_rate_percent smallint The maximum receive rate for the aggregation period, expressed as a percentage. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
transmit_rate_percent smallint Used transmit rate percentage on the host.
max_transmit_rate_percent smallint The maximum transmit rate for the aggregation period, expressed as a percentage. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average rate.
vm_interface_configuration_version integer The virtual machine interface configuration version at the time of sample.

16.2.7.8. Virtual Machine Disk Hourly and Samples History Views

Historical statistics for the virtual disks in the system.

Table 16.39. v3_1_vm_disk_daily_history_view\v3_1_vm_disk_hourly_history_view\v3_1_vm_disk_samples_history_view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The unique ID of this row in the table.
history_datetime timestamp with time zone The timestamp of this history row (rounded to minute, hour, day as per the aggregation level).
vm_disk_id uuid Unique ID of the disk in the system.
vm_disk_status integer
  • 0 - Unassigned
  • 1 - OK
  • 2 - Locked
  • 3 - Invalid
  • 4 - Illegal
minutes_in_status decimal The total number of minutes that the virtual machine disk was in the status shown in the status column for the aggregation period. For example, if a virtual machine disk was locked for 55 minutes and OK for 5 minutes during an hour, two rows will show for this hour. One will have a status of Locked and minutes_in_status of 55, the other will have a status of OK and a minutes_in_status of 5.
vm_actual_disk_size_mb integer The actual size allocated to the disk.
read_rate_bytes_per_second integer Read rate to disk in bytes per second.
max_read_rate_bytes_per_second integer The maximum read rate for the aggregation period. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
write_rate_bytes_per_second integer Write rate to disk in bytes per second.
max_write_rate_bytes_per_second integer The maximum write rate for the aggregation period. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
read_latency_seconds decimal The virtual machine disk read latency measured in seconds.
max_read_latency_seconds decimal The maximum write latency for the aggregation period, measured in seconds. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
write_latency_seconds decimal The virtual machine disk write latency measured in seconds.
max_write_latency_seconds decimal The maximum write latency for the aggregation period, measured in seconds. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
flush_latency_seconds decimal The virtual machine disk flush latency measured in seconds.
max_flush_latency_seconds decimal The maximum flush latency for the aggregation period, measured in seconds. For hourly aggregations, this is the maximum collected sample value. For daily aggregations, it is the maximum hourly average value.
vm_disk_configuration_version integer The virtual machine disk configuration version at the time of sample.

16.2.8. Configuration History Views

16.2.8.1. Configuration History Views

This section describes the configuration views available to the user for querying and generating reports.

Note

delete_date does not appear in latest views because these views provide the latest configuration of living entities, which, by definition, have not been deleted.

16.2.8.2. Latest Datacenter Configuration View

Data centers configuration history in the system.

Table 16.40. v3_1_datacenter_configuration_view\v3_1_latest_datacenter_configuration_view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The ID of the configuration version in the history database.
datacenter_id uuid The unique ID of the data center in the system.
datacenter_name varchar(40) Name of the data center, as displayed in the edit dialog.
datacenter_description varchar(4000) Description of the data center, as displayed in the edit dialog.
storage_type smallint
  • 0 -Unknown
  • 1 - NFS
  • 2 - FCP
  • 3 - iSCSI
  • 4 - Local
  • 6 - All
create_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was added to the system.
update_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was changed in the system.
delete_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was deleted from the system.

16.2.8.3. Datacenter Storage Domain Map View

A historical map showing the relationships between storage domains and data centers in the system.

Table 16.41. v3_1_datacenter_storage_domain_map_view\v3_1_latest_datacenter_configuration_view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The ID of the configuration version in the history database.
storage_domain_id uuid The unique ID of this storage domain in the system.
datacenter_id uuid The unique ID of the data center in the system.
attach_date timestamp with time zone The date the storage domain was attached to the data center.
detach_date timestamp with time zone The date the storage domain was detached from the data center.

16.2.8.4. Latest Storage Domain Configuration View

Storage domains configuration history in the system.

Table 16.42. v3_1_storage_domain_configuration_view\v3_1_latest_storage_domain_configuration_view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The ID of the configuration version in the history database.
storage_domain_id uuid The unique ID of this storage domain in the system.
storage_domain_name varchar(250) Storage domain name.
storage_domain_type smallint
  • 0 - Data (Master)
  • 1 - Data
  • 2 - ISO
  • 3 - Export
storage_type smallint
  • 0 - Unknown
  • 1 - NFS
  • 2 - FCP
  • 3 - iSCSI
  • 4 - Local
  • 6 - All
create_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was added to the system.
update_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was changed in the system.
delete_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was deleted from the system.

16.2.8.5. Latest Cluster Configuration View

Clusters configuration history in the system.

Table 16.43. v3_1_cluster_configuration_view\v3_1_latest_cluster_configuration_view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The ID of the configuration version in the history database.
cluster_id uuid The unique identifier of the datacenter this cluster resides in.
cluster_name varchar(40) Name of the cluster, as displayed in the edit dialog.
cluster_description varchar(4000) As defined in the edit dialog.
datacenter_id uuid The unique identifier of the datacenter this cluster resides in.
cpu_name varchar(255) As displayed in the edit dialog.
compatibility_version varchar(40) As displayed in the edit dialog.
datacenter_configuration_version integer The data center configuration version at the time of creation or update.
create_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was added to the system.
update_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was changed in the system.
delete_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was deleted from the system.

16.2.8.6. Latest Host Configuration View

Host configuration history in the system.

Table 16.44. v3_1_host_configuration_view\v3_1_latest_host_configuration_view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The ID of the configuration version in the history database.
host_id uuid The unique ID of the host in the system.
host_unique_id varchar(128) This field is a combination of the host physical UUID and one of its MAC addresses, and is used to detect hosts already registered in the system.
host_name varchar(255) Name of the host (same as in the edit dialog).
cluster_id uuid The unique ID of the cluster that this host belongs to.
host_type smallint
  • 0 - RHEL Host
  • 2 - RHEV Hypervisor Node
fqn_or_ip varchar(255) The host's DNS name or its IP address for Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager to communicate with (as displayed in the edit dialog).
memory_size_mb integer The host's physical memory capacity, expressed in megabytes (MB).
swap_size_mb integer The host swap partition size.
cpu_model varchar(255) The host's CPU model.
number_of_cores smallint Total number of CPU cores in the host.
host_os varchar(255) The host's operating system version.
pm_ip_address varchar(255) Power Management server IP address.
kernel_version varchar(255) The host's kernel version.
kvm_version varchar(255) The host's KVM version.
vdsm_version varchar(40) The host's VDSM version.
vdsm_port integer As displayed in the edit dialog.
cluster_configuration_version integer The cluster configuration version at the time of creation or update.
create_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was added to the system.
update_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was changed in the system.
delete_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was deleted from the system.

16.2.8.7. Latest Host Interface Configuration View

Host interface configuration history in the system.

Table 16.45. v3_1_host_configuration_view\v3_1_latest_host_configuration_view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The ID of the configuration version in the history database.
host_interface_id uuid The unique ID of this interface in the system.
host_interface_name varchar(50) The interface name as reported by the host.
host_id uuid Unique ID of the host this interface belongs to.
host_interface_type smallint
  • 0 - rt18139_pv
  • 1 - rt18139
  • 2 - e1000
  • 3 - pv
host_interface_speed_bps integer The interface speed in bits per second.
mac_address varchar(20) The interface MAC address.
network_name varchar(50) The logical network associated with the interface.
ip_address varchar(50) As displayed in the edit dialog.
gateway varchar(20) As displayed in the edit dialog.
bond Boolean A flag to indicate if this interface is a bonded interface.
bond_name varchar(50) The name of the bond this interface is part of (if it is part of a bond).
vlan_id integer As displayed in the edit dialog.
host_configuration_version integer The host configuration version at the time of creation or update.
create_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was added to the system.
update_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was changed in the system.
delete_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was deleted from the system.

16.2.8.8. Latest Virtual Machine Configuration View

A list of all virtual machines in the system.

Table 16.46. v3_1_vm_configuration_view\v3_1_latest_vm_configuration_view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The ID of the configuration version in the history database.
vm_id uuid The unique ID of this VM in the system.
vm_name varchar(255) The name of the VM.
vm_description varchar(4000) As displayed in the edit dialog.
vm_type smallint
  • 0 - Desktop
  • 1 - Server
cluster_id uuid The unique ID of the cluster this VM belongs to.
template_id uuid The unique ID of the template this VM is derived from. The field is for future use, as the templates are not synchronized to the history database in this version.
template_name varchar(40) Name of the template from which this VM is derived.
cpu_per_socket smallint Virtual CPUs per socket.
number_of_sockets smallint Total number of virtual CPU sockets.
memory_size_mb integer Total memory allocated to the VM, expressed in megabytes (MB).
operating_system smallint
  • 0 - Unknown
  • 1 - Windows XP
  • 3 - Windows 2003
  • 4 - Windows 2008
  • 5 - Other Linux
  • 6 - Other
  • 7 - RHEL 5
  • 8 - RHEL 4
  • 9 - RHEL 3
  • 10 - Windows2003 x64
  • 11 - Windows 7
  • 12 - Windows 7 x64
  • 13 - RHEL 5 x64
  • 14 - RHEL 4 x64
  • 15 - RHEL 3 x64
  • 16 - Windows 2008 x64
  • 17 - Windows 2008R2 x64
  • 18 - RHEL 6
  • 19 - RHEL 6 x64
ad_domain varchar(40) As displayed in the edit dialog.
default_host uuid As displayed in the edit dialog, the ID of the default host in the system.
high_availability Boolean As displayed in the edit dialog.
initialized Boolean A flag to indicate if this VM was started at least once for Sysprep initialization purposes.
stateless Boolean As displayed in the edit dialog.
fail_back Boolean As displayed in the edit dialog.
auto_suspend Boolean As displayed in the edit dialog.
usb_policy smallint As displayed in the edit dialog.
time_zone varchar(40) As displayed in the edit dialog.
cluster_configuration_version integer The cluster configuration version at the time of creation or update.
default_host_configuration_version integer The host configuration version at the time of creation or update.
create_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was added to the system.
update_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was changed in the system.
delete_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was deleted from the system.

16.2.8.9. Latest Virtual Machine Interface Configuration View

Virtual interfaces configuration history in the system

Table 16.47. v3_1_vm_configuration_view\latest_vm_interface_configuration_view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The ID of the configuration version in the history database.
vm_interface_id uuid The unique ID of this interface in the system.
vm_interface_name varchar(50) As displayed in the edit dialog.
vm_id uuid The ID of the virtual machine this interface belongs to.
vm_interface_type smallint
The type of the virtual interface.
  • 0 - rt18139_pv
  • 1 - rt18139
  • 2 - e1000
  • 3 - pv
vm_interface_speed_bps integer The average speed of the interface during the aggregation in bits per second.
mac_address varchar(20) As displayed in the edit dialog.
network_name varchar(50) As displayed in the edit dialog.
vm_configuration_version integer The virtual machine configuration version at the time of creation or update.
create_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was added to the system.
update_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was changed in the system.
delete_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was deleted from the system.

16.2.8.10. Latest disks-to-virtual-machine-map view

A historical map showing the relationships between virtual disks and virtual machines in the system.

Table 16.48. v3_1_disks_vm_map_view\v3_1_latest_disks_vm_map_view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The ID of the configuration version in the history database.
vm_disk_id uuid The unique ID of this virtual disk in the system.
vm_id uuid The unique ID of the virtual machine in the system.
attach_date timestamp with time zone The date the virtual disk was attached to the virtual machine.
detach_date timestamp with time zone The date the virtual disk was detached from the virtual machine.

16.2.8.11. Latest virtual machine disk configuration view

Virtual disks configuration history in the system.

Table 16.49. v3_1_vm_disk_configuration_view\v3_1_latest_vm_disk_configuration_view

Name Type Description
history_id integer The ID of the configuration version in the history database.
vm_disk_id uuid The unique ID of this disk in the system.
storage_domain_id uuid The ID of the storage domain this disk image belongs to.
vm_internal_drive_mapping varchar The virtual machine internal drive mapping.
vm_disk_description varchar(4000) As displayed in the edit dialog.
vm_disk_space_size_mb integer The defined size of the disk in megabytes (MB).
disk_type integer
As displayed in the edit dialog. Only System and data are currently used.
  • 0 - Unassigned
  • 1 - System
  • 2 - Data
  • 3 - Shared
  • 4 - Swap
  • 5 - Temp
vm_disk_format integer
As displayed in the edit dialog.
  • 3 - Unassigned
  • 4 - COW
  • 5 - RAW
vm_disk_interface integer
  • 0 - IDE
  • 1 - SCSI (not supported)
  • 2 - VirtIO
create_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was added to the system.
update_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was changed in the system.
delete_date timestamp with time zone The date this entity was deleted from the system.

16.3. Dashboards

16.3.1. Dashboards

A dashboard is a collection of related reports that provide a summary of resource usage in the virtualized environment. Dashboards feature an active control panel, allowing quick adjustment of the parameters. Though a dashboard cannot be exported or printed, each of the reports in a dashboard can be opened separately to export, print, save, or adjust the data.
Dashboards can be created and configured using the Designer, in the Reports Portal. For more information on dashboards, consult the JasperReports documentation by clicking the Help in the top menu bar of the Reports Portal.

16.3.2. Inventory Dashboard

The Inventory Dashboard provides an executive summary of the inventory of a data center over a given period of time. The dashboard includes average disk use, number of active virtual machines, and a breakdown of host operating systems. The following parameters can be modified for this dashboard:

Table 16.50. Inventory Dashboard Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The dashboard shows data for the period range selected. Monthly dashboards cover a single month. Quarterly dashboards cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The dashboard covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month.
Data Center The report refers to the selected data center. The list of options shows only data centers containing either hosts, storage domains or virtual machines. The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center.
Cluster The report refers to the cluster selected. If All is selected, the report refers to the entire data center.

16.3.3. Trends Dashboard

The Trends Dashboard provides an executive summary of the trends in a data center over a given period of time. The dashboard includes graphs of CPU and memory usage over time for the most highly utilized hosts and virtual machines in the data center. The following parameters can be modified for this dashboard:

Table 16.51. Trends Dashboard Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The dashboard shows data for the period range selected. Monthly dashboards cover a single month. Quarterly dashboards cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The dashboard covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month.
Data Center The report refers to the selected data center. The list of options shows only data centers containing either hosts, storage domains or virtual machines. The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center.
Cluster The report refers to the cluster selected. If All is selected, the report refers to the entire data center.

16.3.4. Uptime Dashboard

The Uptime Dashboard provides an executive summary of the service level and uptime for a data center over a given period of time. The dashboard includes details on total uptime for each cluster in the data center for the period. The following parameters can be modified for this dashboard:

Table 16.52. Uptime Dashboard Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The dashboard shows data for the period range selected. Monthly dashboards cover a single month. Quarterly dashboards cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The dashboard covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month.
Data Center The report refers to the selected data center. The list of options shows only data centers containing either hosts, storage domains or virtual machines. The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center.

16.3.5. System Overview Dashboard

The System Overview Dashboard provides an executive summary of the hosts in a data center over a given period of time. The dashboard includes:
  • A quality of service (QoS) view for each cluster, which shows the proportion of period where CPU and memory exceeded thresholds on the hosts in the cluster;
  • A break down of host operating systems; and
  • A summary of average host resource utilization over the period.
The following parameters can be modified for this dashboard:

Table 16.53. System Overview Dashboard Parameters

Parameter Description
Show Deleted Entities? The report includes deleted objects, such as data centers, clusters, and hosts removed from the environment.
Period Range The dashboard shows data for the period range selected. Monthly dashboards cover a single month. Quarterly dashboards cover a three-month quarter, beginning on the month specified in the Dates parameter.
Dates The dashboard covers the selected period range, beginning on this date. For a Monthly period range, the selected month is used. For a Quarterly period range, the quarter is determined as beginning on the selected month.
Data Center The report refers to the selected data center. The list of options shows only data centers containing either hosts, storage domains or virtual machines. The list of options for the Cluster parameter includes only clusters in the selected data center.
Cluster The report refers to the cluster selected. If All is selected, the report refers to the entire data center.

16.3.6. Integrated Reporting Dashboard in the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Administration Portal

The Administration Portal also features dashboards for data centers, clusters, and the overall environment. Select the appropriate resource in tree mode and click the Dashboard resource tab to display the dashboard information in the results list.
Reports Dashboard

Figure 16.14. Reports Dashboard


The dashboards accessible in the Administration Portal are used for viewing data, as such they do not have an active control panel. Configure these dashboards in the Reports Portal by editing Datacenter Dashboard, Cluster Dashboard, and System Dashboard.

Firewalls

A.1. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Firewall Requirements

The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager requires that a number of ports be opened to allow network traffic through the system's firewall. The rhevm-setup script is able to configure the firewall automatically, but this will overwrite any pre-existing firewall configuration.
Where an existing firewall configuration exists the firewall rules required by the Manager must instead be manually inserted into it. The rhevm-setup command will save a list of the iptables rules required in the /usr/share/ovirt-engine/conf/iptables.example file.
The firewall configuration documented here assumes a default configuration. Where non-default HTTP and HTTPS ports are chosen during installation adjust the firewall rules to allow network traffic on the ports that were selected - not the default ports (80 and 443) listed here.

Table A.1. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Firewall Requirements

Port(s) Protocol Source Destination Purpose
- ICMP
  • Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor(s)
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux host(s)
  • Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager
When registering to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager, virtualization hosts send an ICMP ping request to the Manager to confirm that it is online.
22 TCP
  • System(s) used for maintenance of the Manager including backend configuration, and software upgrades.
  • Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager
SSH (optional)
80, 443 TCP
  • Administration Portal clients
  • User Portal clients
  • Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor(s)
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux host(s)
  • REST API clients