1.2.3. Evaluating the Tools

An assessment can start by using some form of an information gathering tool. When assessing the entire network, map the layout first to find the hosts that are running. Once located, examine each host individually. Focusing on these hosts requires another set of tools. Knowing which tools to use may be the most crucial step in finding vulnerabilities.
Just as in any aspect of everyday life, there are many different tools that perform the same job. This concept applies to performing vulnerability assessments as well. There are tools specific to operating systems, applications, and even networks (based on the protocols used). Some tools are free; others are not. Some tools are intuitive and easy to use, while others are cryptic and poorly documented but have features that other tools do not.
Finding the right tools may be a daunting task and in the end, experience counts. If possible, set up a test lab and try out as many tools as you can, noting the strengths and weaknesses of each. Read documentation that comes with the tool (for example, in a README file or a manual page). For more information, search articles, step-by-step guides, or even mailing lists specific to a tool on the Internet.
The tools discussed below are just a small sampling of the available tools.

1.2.3.1. Scanning Hosts with Nmap

Nmap is a popular tool that can be used to determine the layout of a network. Nmap has been available for many years and is probably the most often used tool when gathering information. An excellent manual page is included that provides detailed descriptions of its options and usage. Administrators can use Nmap on a network to find host systems and open ports on those systems.
Nmap is a competent first step in vulnerability assessment. You can map out all the hosts within your network and even pass an option that allows Nmap to attempt to identify the operating system running on a particular host. Nmap is a good foundation for establishing a policy of using secure services and restricting unused services.
To install Nmap, run the yum install nmap command as the root user.
1.2.3.1.1. Using Nmap
Nmap can be run from a shell prompt by typing the nmap command followed by the host name or IP address of the machine to scan:
nmap <host name>
For example, to scan a machine with host name foo.example.com, type the following at a shell prompt:
~]$ nmap foo.example.com
The results of a basic scan (which could take up to a few minutes, depending on where the host is located and other network conditions) look similar to the following:
Interesting ports on foo.example.com:
Not shown: 1710 filtered ports
PORT    STATE  SERVICE
22/tcp  open   ssh
53/tcp  open   domain
80/tcp  open   http
113/tcp closed auth
Nmap tests the most common network communication ports for listening or waiting services. This knowledge can be helpful to an administrator who wants to close down unnecessary or unused services.
For more information about using Nmap, see the official homepage at the following URL: