Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

Installation Guide

Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 for all architectures

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Rüdiger Landmann

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Jack Reed

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Petr Bokoč

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Tomáš Čapek

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

David Cantrell

VNC installation 

Hans De Goede

iSCSI 

Jon Masters

Driver updates 

Edited by

Rüdiger Landmann

Edited by

Jack Reed

Edited by

Petr Bokoč

Legal Notice

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Abstract

This manual explains how to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 installation program (anaconda) and to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 32-bit and 64-bit x86 systems, 64-bit Power Systems servers, and IBM System z. It also covers advanced installation methods such as kickstart installations, PXE installations, and installations over VNC. Finally, it describes common post-installation tasks and explains how to troubleshoot installation problems.
1. Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux
2. Making Media
2.1. Making an Installation DVD
2.2. Making Minimal Boot Media
2.2.1. Minimal USB Boot Media for BIOS-based Systems
2.2.2. Minimal USB Boot Media for UEFI-based Systems
I. x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 — Installation and Booting
3. Planning for Installation on the x86 Architecture
3.1. Upgrade or Install?
3.2. Is Your Hardware Compatible?
3.3. Hardware Requirements
3.4. RAID and Other Disk Devices
3.4.1. Hardware RAID
3.4.2. Software RAID
3.4.3. FireWire and USB Disks
3.5. Notes on UEFI Support
3.5.1. Feature Support
3.5.2. Disk Drives with MBR on UEFI Systems
3.6. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
3.7. Selecting an Installation Method
3.8. Choose a Boot Method
4. Preparing for Installation
4.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
4.1.1. Preparing for FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS Installation
4.1.2. Preparing for an NFS Installation
4.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
5. System Specifications List
6. Updating Drivers During Installation on Intel and AMD Systems
6.1. Limitations of Driver Updates During Installation
6.2. Preparing for a Driver Update During Installation
6.2.1. Preparing to Use a Driver Update Image File
6.2.2. Preparing a Driver Disc
6.2.3. Preparing an Initial RAM Disk Update
6.3. Performing a Driver Update During Installation
6.3.1. Let the Installer Find a Driver Update Disk Automatically
6.3.2. Let the Installer Prompt You for a Driver Update
6.3.3. Use a Boot Option to Specify a Driver Update Disk
6.3.4. Select a PXE Target that Includes a Driver Update
6.4. Specifying the Location of a Driver Update Image File or a Driver Update Disk
7. Booting the Installer
7.1. Starting the Installation Program
7.1.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Systems
7.1.2. The Boot Menu
7.1.3. Additional Boot Options
7.2. Installing from a Different Source
7.3. Booting from the Network Using PXE
8. Configuring Language and Installation Source
8.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
8.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
8.2. Language Selection
8.3. Installation Method
8.3.1. Installing from a DVD
8.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
8.3.3. Performing a Network Installation
8.3.4. Installing via NFS
8.3.5. Installing via FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS
8.4. Verifying Media
9. Installing Using Anaconda
9.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
9.2. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
9.2.1. Screenshots During Installation
9.2.2. A Note About Virtual Consoles
9.3. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9.4. Language Selection
9.5. Keyboard Configuration
9.6. Storage Devices
9.6.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
9.7. Setting the Hostname
9.7.1. Editing Network Connections
9.8. Time Zone Configuration
9.9. Set the Root Password
9.10. Assign Storage Devices
9.11. Initializing the Hard Disk
9.12. Upgrading an Existing System
9.12.1. The Upgrade Dialog
9.12.2. Upgrading Using the Installer
9.12.3. Updating the Boot Loader Configuration
9.13. Disk Partitioning Setup
9.14. Choosing a Disk Encryption Passphrase
9.15. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
9.15.1. Create Storage
9.15.2. Adding Partitions
9.15.3. Create Software RAID
9.15.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
9.15.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
9.16. Write Changes to Disk
9.17. Package Group Selection
9.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
9.17.2. Customizing the Software Selection
9.18. x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration
9.18.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
9.18.2. Rescue Mode
9.18.3. Alternative Boot Loaders
9.19. Installing Packages
9.20. Installation Complete
10. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System
10.1. You Are Unable to Boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10.1.1. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card?
10.1.2. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
10.1.3. Diagnosing Early Boot Problems
10.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation
10.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
10.3. Trouble During the Installation
10.3.1. The "No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux" Error Message
10.3.2. Saving Traceback Messages
10.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables
10.3.4. Using Remaining Space
10.3.5. The "drive must have a GPT disk label" Error Message
10.3.6. Other Partitioning Problems
10.4. Problems After Installation
10.4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86-based System?
10.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
10.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
10.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
10.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
10.4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
10.4.7. Your Printer Does Not Work
10.4.8. Apache HTTP Server or Sendmail Stops Responding During Startup
II. IBM Power Systems — Installation and Booting
11. Planning for Installation on Power Systems Servers
11.1. Upgrade or Install?
11.2. Hardware Requirements
11.3. Installation Tools
11.4. Preparation for IBM Power Systems servers
11.5. RAID and Other Disk Devices
11.5.1. Hardware RAID
11.5.2. Software RAID
11.5.3. FireWire and USB Disks
11.6. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
11.7. Choose a Boot Method
12. Preparing for Installation
12.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
12.1.1. Preparing for FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS Installation
12.1.2. Preparing for an NFS Installation
12.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
13. Updating Drivers During Installation on IBM Power Systems Servers
13.1. Limitations of Driver Updates During Installation
13.2. Preparing for a Driver Update During Installation
13.2.1. Preparing to Use a Driver Update Image File
13.2.2. Preparing a Driver Disc
13.2.3. Preparing an Initial RAM Disk Update
13.3. Performing a Driver Update During Installation
13.3.1. Let the Installer Find a Driver Update Disk Automatically
13.3.2. Let the Installer Prompt You for a Driver Update
13.3.3. Use a Boot Option to Specify a Driver Update Disk
13.3.4. Select an Installation Server Target That Includes a Driver Update
13.4. Specifying the Location of a Driver Update Image File or a Driver Update Disk
14. Booting the Installer
14.1. The Boot Menu
14.2. Installing from a Different Source
14.3. Booting from the Network Using a yaboot Installation Server
15. Configuring Language and Installation Source
15.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
15.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
15.2. Language Selection
15.3. Installation Method
15.3.1. Beginning Installation
15.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
15.3.3. Performing a Network Installation
15.3.4. Installing via NFS
15.3.5. Installing via FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS
15.4. Verifying Media
16. Installing Using Anaconda
16.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
16.2. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
16.3. A Note About Linux Virtual Consoles
16.4. Using the HMC vterm
16.5. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
16.6. Language Selection
16.7. Keyboard Configuration
16.8. Storage Devices
16.8.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
16.9. Setting the Hostname
16.9.1. Editing Network Connections
16.10. Time Zone Configuration
16.11. Set the Root Password
16.12. Assign Storage Devices
16.13. Initializing the Hard Disk
16.14. Upgrading an Existing System
16.14.1. The Upgrade Dialog
16.14.2. Upgrading Using the Installer
16.15. Disk Partitioning Setup
16.16. Choosing a Disk Encryption Passphrase
16.17. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
16.17.1. Create Storage
16.17.2. Adding Partitions
16.17.3. Create Software RAID
16.17.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
16.17.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
16.18. Write Changes to Disk
16.19. Package Group Selection
16.19.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
16.19.2. Customizing the Software Selection
16.20. Installing Packages
16.21. Installation Complete
17. Troubleshooting Installation on an IBM Power Systems server
17.1. You Are Unable to Boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
17.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
17.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation
17.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
17.3. Trouble During the Installation
17.3.1. The "No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux" Error Message
17.3.2. Saving Traceback Messages
17.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables
17.3.4. Other Partitioning Problems for IBM Power Systems Users
17.4. Problems After Installation
17.4.1. Unable to IPL from *NWSSTG
17.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
17.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
17.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
17.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
17.4.6. Your Printer Does Not Work
17.4.7. Apache HTTP Server or Sendmail Stops Responding During Startup
III. IBM System z Architecture - Installation and Booting
18. Planning for Installation on System z
18.1. Pre-Installation
18.2. Overview of the System z Installation Procedure
18.2.1. Booting (IPL) the Installer
18.2.2. Installation Phase 1
18.2.3. Installation Phase 2
18.2.4. Installation Phase 3
18.3. Graphical User Interface with X11 or VNC
18.3.1. Installation using X11 forwarding
18.3.2. Installation using X11
18.3.3. Installation using VNC
18.3.4. Installation using a VNC listener
18.3.5. Automating the Installation with Kickstart
19. Preparing for Installation
19.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
19.1.1. Preparing for FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS Installation
19.1.2. Preparing for an NFS Installation
19.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
19.2.1. Accessing Installation Phase 3 and the Package Repository on a Hard Drive
20. Booting (IPL) the Installer
20.1. Installing Under z/VM
20.1.1. Using the z/VM Reader
20.1.2. Using a Prepared DASD
20.1.3. Using a Prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk
20.1.4. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive
20.2. Installing in an LPAR
20.2.1. Using an FTP Server
20.2.2. Using the HMC or SE DVD Drive
20.2.3. Using a Prepared DASD
20.2.4. Using a Prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk
20.2.5. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive
21. Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device
21.1. A Note on Terminals
22. Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and Installation Source
22.1. Non-interactive Line-Mode Installation
22.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
22.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
22.3. Language Selection
22.4. Installation Method
22.4.1. Installing from a DVD
22.4.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
22.4.3. Performing a Network Installation
22.4.4. Installing via NFS
22.4.5. Installing via FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS
22.5. Verifying Media
22.6. Retrieving Phase 3 of the Installation Program
23. Installation Phase 3: Installing Using Anaconda
23.1. The Non-interactive Line-Mode Text Installation Program Output
23.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
23.3. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
23.4. Configure the Install Terminal
23.5. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
23.6. Storage Devices
23.6.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
23.7. Setting the Hostname
23.7.1. Editing Network Connections
23.8. Time Zone Configuration
23.9. Set the Root Password
23.10. Assign Storage Devices
23.11. Initializing the Hard Disk
23.12. Upgrading an Existing System
23.12.1. Upgrading Using the Installer
23.13. Disk Partitioning Setup
23.14. Choosing a Disk Encryption Passphrase
23.15. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
23.15.1. Create Storage
23.15.2. Adding Partitions
23.15.3. Create Software RAID
23.15.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
23.15.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
23.16. Write Changes to Disk
23.17. Package Group Selection
23.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
23.17.2. Customizing the Software Selection
23.18. Installing Packages
23.19. Installation Complete
23.19.1. IPL Under z/VM
23.19.2. IPL on an LPAR
23.19.3. Continuing After Reboot (re-IPL)
24. Troubleshooting Installation on IBM System z
24.1. You Are Unable to Boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
24.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
24.2. Trouble During the Installation
24.2.1. The "No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux" Error Message
24.2.2. Saving Traceback Messages
24.2.3. Other Partitioning Problems
24.3. Problems After Installation
24.3.1. Remote Graphical Desktops and XDMCP
24.3.2. Problems When You Try to Log In
24.3.3. Your Printer Does Not Work
24.3.4. Apache HTTP Server or Sendmail Stops Responding During Startup
25. Configuring an Installed Linux on System z Instance
25.1. Adding DASDs
25.1.1. Dynamically Setting DASDs Online
25.1.2. Persistently setting DASDs online
25.1.3. DASDs Which Are Not Part of the Root File System
25.1.4. Preparing a New DASD with Low-level Formatting
25.1.5. Expanding Existing LVM Volumes to New Storage Devices
25.2. Adding FCP-Attached Logical Units (LUNs)
25.2.1. Dynamically Activating an FCP LUN
25.2.2. Persistently Activating FCP LUNs
25.3. Adding a Network Device
25.3.1. Adding a qeth Device
25.3.2. Adding an LCS Device
25.3.3. Mapping Subchannels and Network Device Names
25.3.4. Configuring a System z Network Device for Network Root File System
26. Parameter and Configuration Files
26.1. Required Parameters
26.2. The z/VM Configuration File
26.3. Installation Network Parameters
26.4. VNC and X11 Parameters
26.5. Loader Parameters
26.6. Parameters for Kickstart Installations
26.7. Miscellaneous Parameters
26.8. Sample Parameter File and CMS Configuration File
27. IBM System z References
27.1. IBM System z Publications
27.2. IBM Redbooks Publications for System z
27.3. Online Resources
IV. Advanced Installation Options
28. Boot Options
28.1. Configuring the Installation System at the Boot Menu
28.1.1. Specifying the Language
28.1.2. Configuring the Interface
28.1.3. Updating anaconda
28.1.4. Specifying the Installation Method
28.1.5. Specifying the Network Settings
28.2. Enabling Remote Access to the Installation System
28.2.1. Enabling Remote Access with VNC
28.2.2. Connecting the Installation System to a VNC Listener
28.2.3. Enabling Remote Access with ssh
28.2.4. Enabling Remote Access with Telnet
28.3. Logging to a Remote System During the Installation
28.3.1. Configuring a Log Server
28.4. Automating the Installation with Kickstart
28.5. Enhancing Hardware Support
28.5.1. Overriding Automatic Hardware Detection
28.6. Using the Maintenance Boot Modes
28.6.1. Verifying Boot Media
28.6.2. Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode
28.6.3. Upgrading Your Computer
29. Installing Without Media
29.1. Retrieving Boot Files
29.2. Editing the GRUB Configuration
29.3. Booting to Installation
30. Setting Up an Installation Server
30.1. Setting Up the Network Server
30.2. Network Boot Configuration
30.2.1. Configuring PXE Boot for BIOS
30.2.2. Configuring PXE Boot for EFI
30.2.3. Configuring for Power Systems Servers
30.3. Starting the tftp Server
30.4. Adding a Custom Boot Message
30.5. Performing the Installation
31. Installing Through VNC
31.1. VNC Viewer
31.2. VNC Modes in Anaconda
31.2.1. Direct Mode
31.2.2. Connect Mode
31.3. Installation Using VNC
31.3.1. Installation Example
31.3.2. Kickstart Considerations
31.3.3. Firewall Considerations
31.4. References
32. Kickstart Installations
32.1. What are Kickstart Installations?
32.2. How Do You Perform a Kickstart Installation?
32.3. Creating the Kickstart File
32.4. Kickstart Options
32.4.1. Advanced Partitioning Example
32.5. Package Selection
32.6. Pre-installation Script
32.6.1. Example Pre-installation Script
32.7. Post-installation Script
32.7.1. Examples
32.8. Making the Kickstart File Available
32.8.1. Creating Kickstart Boot Media
32.8.2. Making the Kickstart File Available on the Network
32.9. Making the Installation Tree Available
32.10. Starting a Kickstart Installation
33. Kickstart Configurator
33.1. Basic Configuration
33.2. Installation Method
33.3. Boot Loader Options
33.4. Partition Information
33.4.1. Creating Partitions
33.5. Network Configuration
33.6. Authentication
33.7. Firewall Configuration
33.7.1. SELinux Configuration
33.8. Display Configuration
33.9. Package Selection
33.10. Pre-Installation Script
33.11. Post-Installation Script
33.11.1. Chroot Environment
33.11.2. Use an Interpreter
33.12. Saving the File
V. After Installation
34. Firstboot
34.1. License Information
34.2. Configuring the Subscription Service
34.2.1. Set Up Software Updates
34.2.2. Choose Service
34.2.3. Subscription Management Registration
34.3. Create User
34.3.1. Authentication Configuration
34.4. Date and Time
34.5. Kdump
35. Your Next Steps
35.1. Updating Your System
35.1.1. Driver Update rpm Packages
35.2. Finishing an Upgrade
35.3. Switching to a Graphical Login
35.3.1. Enabling Access to Software Repositories from the Command Line
35.4. Installing Packages With yum
36. Basic System Recovery
36.1. Rescue Mode
36.1.1. Common Problems
36.1.2. Booting into Rescue Mode
36.1.3. Booting into Single-User Mode
36.1.4. Booting into Emergency Mode
36.2. Rescue Mode on Power Systems servers
36.2.1. Special Considerations for Accessing the SCSI Utilities from Rescue Mode
36.3. Using Rescue Mode to Fix or Work Around Driver Problems
36.3.1. Using RPM to Add, Remove, or Replace a Driver
36.3.2. Blacklisting a Driver
37. Upgrading Your Current System
38. Unregistering from Red Hat Subscription Management Services
38.1. Systems Registered with Red Hat Subscription Management
38.2. Systems Registered with RHN Classic
38.3. Systems Registered with Satellite
39. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux From x86-based Systems
39.1. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the Only Operating System on the Computer
39.2. Your Computer Dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Another Operating System
39.2.1. Your Computer Dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a Microsoft Windows Operating System
39.2.2. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a different Linux distribution
39.3. Replacing Red Hat Enterprise Linux with MS-DOS or Legacy Versions of Microsoft Windows
40. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from IBM System z
40.1. Running a Different Operating System on your z/VM Guest or LPAR
VI. Technical Appendices
A. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
A.1. Hard Disk Basic Concepts
A.1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
A.1.2. Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many
A.1.3. Partitions Within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions
A.1.4. GUID Partition Table (GPT)
A.1.5. Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux
A.1.6. Partition Naming Scheme
A.1.7. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems
A.1.8. Disk Partitions and Mount Points
A.1.9. How Many Partitions?
B. iSCSI Disks
B.1. iSCSI Disks in anaconda
B.2. iSCSI Disks During Start Up
C. Disk Encryption
C.1. What is Block Device Encryption?
C.2. Encrypting Block Devices Using dm-crypt/LUKS6tit
C.2.1. Overview of LUKS
C.2.2. How Will I Access the Encrypted Devices After Installation? (System Startup)
C.2.3. Choosing a Good Passphrase
C.3. Creating Encrypted Block Devices in Anaconda
C.3.1. What Kinds of Block Devices Can Be Encrypted?
C.3.2. Saving Passphrases
C.3.3. Creating and Saving Backup Passphrases
C.4. Creating Encrypted Block Devices on the Installed System After Installation
C.4.1. Create the Block Devices
C.4.2. Optional: Fill the Device with Random Data
C.4.3. Format the Device as a dm-crypt/LUKS Encrypted Device
C.4.4. Create a Mapping to Allow Access to the Device's Decrypted Contents
C.4.5. Create File Systems on the Mapped Device or Continue to Build Complex Storage Structures Using the Mapped Device
C.4.6. Add the Mapping Information to /etc/crypttab
C.4.7. Add an Entry to /etc/fstab
C.5. Common Post-Installation Tasks
C.5.1. Set a Randomly Generated Key as an Additional Way to Access an Encrypted Block Device
C.5.2. Add a New Passphrase to an Existing Device
C.5.3. Remove a Passphrase or Key from a Device
D. Understanding LVM
E. The GRUB Boot Loader
E.1. Boot Loaders and System Architecture
E.2. GRUB
E.2.1. GRUB and the Boot Process on BIOS-based x86 Systems
E.2.2. GRUB and the Boot Process on UEFI-based x86 Systems
E.2.3. Features of GRUB
E.3. Installing GRUB
E.4. Troubleshooting GRUB
E.5. GRUB Terminology
E.5.1. Device Names
E.5.2. File Names and Blocklists
E.5.3. The Root File System and GRUB
E.6. GRUB Interfaces
E.6.1. Interfaces Load Order
E.7. GRUB Commands
E.8. GRUB Menu Configuration File
E.8.1. Configuration File Structure
E.8.2. Configuration File Directives
E.9. Changing Runlevels at Boot Time
E.10. Additional Resources
E.10.1. Installed Documentation
E.10.2. Useful Websites
F. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
F.1. The Boot Process
F.2. A Detailed Look at the Boot Process
F.2.1. The Firmware Interface
F.2.2. The Boot Loader
F.2.3. The Kernel
F.2.4. The /sbin/init Program
F.2.5. Job Definitions
F.3. Running Additional Programs at Boot Time
F.4. SysV Init Runlevels
F.4.1. Runlevels
F.4.2. Runlevel Utilities
F.5. Shutting Down
G. Alternatives to busybox commands
H. Other Technical Documentation
I. Revision History
Index