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doTry, doCatch, and doFinally

Overview

To handle exceptions within a route, you can use a combination of the doTry, doCatch, and doFinally clauses, which handle exceptions in a similar way to Java's try, catch, and finally blocks.

Similarities between doCatch and Java catch

In general, the doCatch() clause in a route definition behaves in an analogous way to the catch() statement in Java code. In particular, the following features are supported by the doCatch() clause:

  • Multiple doCatch clauses—you can have multiple doCatch clauses within a single doTry block. The doCatch clauses are tested in the order they appear, just like Java catch() statements. Apache Camel executes the first doCatch clause that matches the thrown exception.

    [Note]Note

    This algorithm is different from the exception matching algorithm used by the onException clause—see onException Clause for details.

  • Rethrowing exceptions—you can rethrow the current exception from within a doCatch clause using the handled sub-clause (see Rethrowing exceptions in doCatch).

Special features of doCatch

There are some special features of the doCatch() clause, however, that have no analogue in the Java catch() statement. The following features are specific to doCatch():

  • Catching multiple exceptions—the doCatch clause allows you to specify a list of exceptions to catch, in contrast to the Java catch() statement, which catches only one exception (see Example).

  • Conditional catching—you can catch an exception conditionally, by appending an onWhen sub-clause to the doCatch clause (see Conditional exception catching using onWhen).

Example

The following example shows how to write a doTry block in the Java DSL, where the doCatch() clause will be executed, if either the IOException exception or the IllegalStateException exception are raised, and the doFinally() clause is always executed, irrespective of whether an exception is raised or not.

from("direct:start")
    .doTry()
        .process(new ProcessorFail())
        .to("mock:result")
    .doCatch(IOException.class, IllegalStateException.class)
        .to("mock:catch")
    .doFinally()
        .to("mock:finally")
    .end();

Or equivalently, in Spring XML:

<route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <!-- here the try starts. its a try .. catch .. finally just as regular java code -->
    <doTry>
        <process ref="processorFail"/>
        <to uri="mock:result"/>
        <doCatch>
            <!-- catch multiple exceptions -->
            <exception>java.io.IOException</exception>
            <exception>java.lang.IllegalStateException</exception>
            <to uri="mock:catch"/>
        </doCatch>
        <doFinally>
            <to uri="mock:finally"/>
        </doFinally>
    </doTry>
</route>

Rethrowing exceptions in doCatch

It is possible to rethrow an exception in a doCatch() clause by calling the handled() sub-clause with its argument set to false, as follows:

from("direct:start")
    .doTry()
        .process(new ProcessorFail())
        .to("mock:result")
    .doCatch(IOException.class)
        // mark this as NOT handled, eg the caller will also get the exception
        .handled(false)
        .to("mock:io")
    .doCatch(Exception.class)
        // and catch all other exceptions
        .to("mock:error")
    .end();

In the preceding example, if the IOException is caught by doCatch(), the current exchange is sent to the mock:io endpoint, and then the IOException is rethrown. This gives the consumer endpoint at the start of the route (in the from() command) an opportunity to handle the exception as well.

The following example shows how to define the same route in Spring XML:

<route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <doTry>
        <process ref="processorFail"/>
        <to uri="mock:result"/>
        <doCatch>
            <exception>java.io.IOException</exception>
            <!-- mark this as NOT handled, eg the caller will also get the exception -->
            <handled>
                <constant>false</constant>
            </handled>
            <to uri="mock:io"/>
        </doCatch>
        <doCatch>
            <!-- and catch all other exceptions they are handled by default (ie handled = true) -->
            <exception>java.lang.Exception</exception>
            <to uri="mock:error"/>
        </doCatch>
    </doTry>
</route>

Conditional exception catching using onWhen

A special feature of the Apache Camel doCatch() clause is that you can conditionalize the catching of exceptions based on an expression that is evaluated at run time. In other words, if you catch an exception using a clause of the form, doCatch(ExceptionList).doWhen(Expression), an exception will only be caught, if the predicate expression, Expression, evaluates to true at run time.

For example, the following doTry block will catch the exceptions, IOException and IllegalStateException, only if the exception message contains the word, Severe:

from("direct:start")
    .doTry()
        .process(new ProcessorFail())
        .to("mock:result")
    .doCatch(IOException.class, IllegalStateException.class)
        .onWhen(exceptionMessage().contains("Severe"))
        .to("mock:catch")
    .doCatch(CamelExchangeException.class)
        .to("mock:catchCamel")
    .doFinally()
        .to("mock:finally")
    .end();

Or equivalently, in Spring XML:

<route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <doTry>
        <process ref="processorFail"/>
        <to uri="mock:result"/>
        <doCatch>
            <exception>java.io.IOException</exception>
            <exception>java.lang.IllegalStateException</exception>
            <onWhen>
                <simple>${exception.message} contains 'Severe'</simple>
            </onWhen>
            <to uri="mock:catch"/>
        </doCatch>
        <doCatch>
            <exception>org.apache.camel.CamelExchangeException</exception>
            <to uri="mock:catchCamel"/>
        </doCatch>
        <doFinally>
            <to uri="mock:finally"/>
        </doFinally>
    </doTry>
</route>
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